The structure of the organization

Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management

The structure of the organization as its internal variable represents the relationship between levels and functional areas, i.e. design of the organisation, built in a form that ensures the effective achievement of organizational goals. This design features channels of authority and communication between the various administrative services, and information that flows through these channels. The main function of the organizational structure — control and coordination. Specialization and division of labor can increase productivity in your organization. However, if they are not clearly defined and coordinated relationships between people and organizational units, the efficiency of specialization will be lost. The first step in this direction is the creation of organizational structure, scalar chain or hierarchy.All organisations, except the smallest, have a clear hierarchy of management in which all members occupy a particular place in accordance with their authority or status. In the bottom of the hierarchy are the people who are engaged in direct work, the so-called unmanagement employees. These include workers at the factory, employees of agencies etc.
On individual employees rises by the management, which consists of either a standalone host or from a layered pyramid. Thus one characteristic of the Manager is that they spend most of their time monitoring other workers. Within management there are three levels. Supervisory, or first layer of management that directs the activities of a staff he has no control over the activities of other managers. Professionals in enterprises, government officials, supervising clerks.
The main focus in this level managers have to work with people, interpersonal relations and decisions relating to technical execution.
Much power is in the hands of mid-level managers. Unlike the first level, they spend a lot of their time managing other managers. The main task of middle managers is finding the right methods of solving the most important tasks. Middle level managers are also involved in establishing plans and setting objectives for their units, and sometimes the organization as a whole.
The mid-level managers — heads of structural subdivisions, heads of departments, etc.

Top managers are responsible for setting global goals, strategy and internal values of the organiz - ation. Higher managers middle managers.
Typical titles of top managers are President, CEO or first Vice-President.
Depending on the size of the company, the same people who form plans at the highest level, can also participate in their implementation on the lower level, up to the management of workers.
Managers at all levels in varying degrees cover all areas of management i.e. marketing, Finance, operations or production management, administrative or General management, personnel and other kinds of management.
Simultaneously with the creation of scalar chain occurs and a specialized division of labor, i.e. the provision of a specific work for the experts.
As with the hierarchy, all organizations, except the smallest, have a horizontal division of labor according to specialized lines or functional areas. The choice of functional areas and the construction of scalar chain determines the basic structure and the possibilities of its success.