The culture of the organization
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The culture of the organization, of course, does not exist apart from culture. Moreover, if we are talking about culture, for example, an organization such as a state, it exists as part of a world culture. However, in this case we are talking about the culture of the organization as its internal variable. In recent years the interest of both theoreticians and practitioners of management to this issue has increased dramatically. The result was the emergence of numerous conceptions of corporate culture, organizational culture, corporate culture, etc.
Increased attention primarily due to the fact that increased understanding of the influence that culture has on the effectiveness of the organization. Successfully developing companies have a high level of culture, which is formed as a result of deliberate efforts on the development of the spirit of the Corporation.
Analyzing the differences in the culture of slow-growing companies and fast growing businesses, we can draw the following conclusions:
slow growing companies are companies that focus primarily on power and status. Associated with this fear leads to oppressive uncertainty, highlighted by the hierarchy, the cost of energy and time for asserting one's own position can be significant. Perhaps these companies have too much to do ourselves;
- fast growing enterprises, in contrast, is focused more on achieving set targets, employees are confident, they know that their achievements are recorded and paid. People want to improve and learn something. Perhaps these companies have more time to work in the proper sense of the word;
- both types of companies attract, obviously, different employees: "seeking care", i.e. employees who primarily can meet the reliability, the respect and authority, or the factors surrounding the work, and "looking for motivation", the motivation for which are the content of the work and their achievement.
Although the material presented is based on surveys of employees and primarily takes into account the moral climate of the enterprise, it is still schematically show the cultural differences, even if we do not equate the moral climate of the culture.
Under the culture of the organization understood the position, perspective and demeanor in which implemented core values.
The culture of the organization can be viewed in two ways:
a) as an independent variable, i.e. it is formed from the sum of ideas about values, norms, principles and behaviour that the members bring to the organization.
b) as a dependent variable and internal, which develops its own dynamics — both positive and negative. Recognized the concept of "culture" as the internal variable is a way of life, thinking, actions, existence. It could be, for example, the decision-making order or on the order of encouragement and punishment of workers, etc.
The culture of the organization can be seen as an expression of the values that are embodied in the organizational structure and personnel policy, providing the influence.
Development of society leads to the development of values that influence the culture of the organization. Currently both in the West and in Russia are excluded before such commonly accepted values, such as:
• the adequacy of
Are replaced by other values, such as:
. self-determination by staff
. orienteering needs. disclosure of the individual. creativity
. the ability to compromise. decentralization.
Hofstede Geert, exploring culture organizations, developed a model that helps to understand this phenomenon and at the same time easily applicable in practice. He klassificeret cultural aspects of the organization on the basis of five characteristics:
Individualism implies that the individual acts according to their interests and the interests of the closest people to him, i.e. his family. Collectivism, by contrast, comes from the fact that every person by birth and belongs to a more or less cohesive group and cannot consider himself free from her. Group cares about the needs of the individual, requiring him in the turn total and unconditional subordination. A situation where the interests of a group rigidly define the behavior of its members, can be seen as a manifestation of sectarianism;
2. Area authority — the degree of inequality among people which the population of this country considers acceptable or abnormal. However, the low level is characterized by relative equality in society, and high — on the contrary. Inequality exists in all cultures, but the loyalty relationship to it in different cultures varies. As a criterion for defining the limits of authority, there may be differences in the level of income. Within companies this criterion includes not only payments and ownership of the interest but also the attribution of posts (for example, the model of the machine assigned by the company; personal chauffeur and the possibility or impossibility of communication with the boss);
3. The elimination of uncertainty. This characteristic indicates the degree of desire to avoid situations in which people feel insecure. As example, the practice of imposing rigid behavioural standards and appeals to believe in absolute truth.
Culture devoid of the perception of uncertainty, characterized by Activity, aggressiveness, emotionality and neterpimost - TEW, while culture, perceiving the uncertainty, Characterized by more reflection, less aggression, detachment and relative tolerance (tolerance of others ' opinions);
4. Masculinity/ femininity. This feature sets the degree of susceptibility of culture to the inherent features of women's behavior.
In essence all cultures carry a dominant masculinity, and "masculine" cultures, it is assumed that the man self-confident, ambitious, committed to the struggle and focused on achieving material success. Men have to respect the size, strength and aggressiveness. In masculine cultures, woman is relegated to only the activities related to improving the quality of life, and the upbringing of children and care for the elderly and infirm.
Femininity involves the ability to perceive small, weak and slow.
In short, in masculine cultures, the emphasis is on material success and determination. In the female the same priority is given to quality of life and care for the weak.
5. Long-term or short-term orientation in the behavior of members of society. Long-term orientation is characterized by a look into the future and seen in the desire to save and accumulate in the tenacity and persistence in achieving goals. Short-term orientation is characterized by a look into the past and present and is manifested through respect for traditions and heritage, through the fulfillment of social obligations.
Data obtained by G. Hofstede on the measurement of these variables in ten countries. It should be emphasized that not all people in each of the countries surveyed, feel and act exactly in accordance with the received points.
Scandinavia represents an extreme case, as Scandinavians in General have a high degree of individualism, they hold closer to their leaders, they are constantly overcome by the feeling of insecurity, they have very strong feminine culture. They are nothing like the Germans or Americans. The latter, however, also individualists, but they are much farther from their leaders, they need rigid structure, they do not readily accept uncertainty, and therefore act as carriers of the more "masculine" culture.
These differences are not always taken into account. That's why the Swedish management culture is often untenable in the United States. That is why the management in the Finnish spirit causes the "headache" of Sweden. The same distinctions Bear management methods the process of business development, accepted in the particular company and style activities of the entrepreneur. It is impossible to manage extremely decentraliza - Bath process of economic development in the framework of a culture based on accurate information. Often, the habit of asking, instead of giving orders is perceived as a sign of weakness that undermine the leadership position.
In fact, the role of "lone-wolf" — a strong entrepreneur-Maverick — still not fully elucidated. Entrepreneurs prefer to operate as "a bunch", can achieve greater success than the entrepreneur with the psychology of loners. In Japan and Scandinavia, where collegiality is highly respected, the process of development the long-term prospects can bring better results than in the United States, where the lone, strong, resourceful hero is the ideal corporate development.
The considered model can be perfectly used in assessing the performance of the organization as well as for the comparative analysis of organizations and countries.
At the same time, many practical ideas for the development of the culture of the organization, creating a favorable climate in the organization is quite simple and effective. So, for example,*, internal strife, tearing the labor collectives, — the problem, alas, international, coupled with disputes, stress. Where dwelt the germ of strife is usually not the climate, not the productivity.
Why not just used Japanese psychologists to rid the groups from unnecessary passions! But all used methods (quiet classical music, is painted in cheerful colors Wallpaper, flow in the working space of the air with a pleasant aroma additives) were powerless: the tension in the bands is completely eliminated.
And then was born a simple idea — to put between tables configured affectionate friendly fluffy dog. Disputes vanished, people had changed dramatically.
Demand without supply is unthinkable in Japan. In the country immediately formed a new type of paid service — delivery pet rent. In addition to dogs, the rental can be enjoyed cat, parrot or even a pig. The time factor is not of any value to take an animal for one day, at least for a month, the main thing — pay. Prices for rentals are pretty high for a dog, borrowed for three days, it is necessary to lay out 300 thousand yen, which translated is about three thousand dollars.
However, the Japanese do not believe that they were allegedly fleecing, knowing that it is not so simple to bring a playful, sociable dog who willingly and without whims will carry out the commands of strangers. And to keep it expensive. So before you give rent animal workforce the company representative certifies that the dog or cat in the new building will have proper care.
Speaking about the peculiarities of culture in different countries and in different organizations, you need to keep in mind that in Russia there are also differences across regions. So, studies show* that, for example, the Swedish model (in its basis) is more acceptable to the North-West region of Russia and first in St. Petersburg, Novgorod and Pskov, as well as for individual regions of Western Siberia and the organizational culture which to some extent are similar. The priority in this culture is given to the quality of life and care for the weak, that according to the theory of Dutch researcher Hofstede indicates "female". The carriers of this culture are characterized by a high degree of individualism, they hold closer to their leaders, they are beset with feelings of insecurity, etc. And that they differ, in particular, from the Americans.
The last too are individualists, but are much further from their leaders to manage them need rigid structure, they do not readily accept uncertainty, assertive in achieving their goals, being a native of a "masculine" beginning in the economic culture. A certain similarity in this respect peculiar economic and organizational culture of such regions as the Moscow region, Central Urals, Transbaikalia, etc. that are closer to the American or German economic model. Consequently, the business model acceptable to the North-West region, can be unsound and ineffective in the Central region, middle Volga or in the Caucasus, if only because of differences in the factor of culture.
This fact fully applies to individual production and business systems, located in respective regions. This means that each organization needs to Develop and adopt a code of business culture, which should reflect the characteristic of her attitude to the rule of law, quality of products, Finance and production obligations and distribution of business information, employees, etc.
Thus, the fundamental role of economic and organizational culture in models of production and economic systems is also evidenced by the creation in them of the corresponding control system, and the formation of organizational culture. If, for example, any system has an organizational culture with the "feminine" the beginning, the management style it must come increasingly to be democratic, has to be collegiality in decision-making. In line with this, it is necessary to build the organizational structure of the system for which the most appropriate will be linearly-staff, matrix, or other similar type of governance structure.
In the context of the organizational culture of male early style of management in production and economic system should be characterized by authoritarianism, rigidity and unity of command in the managerial decision-making that affects organizational structure, which should be linear, linearly - functional, etc.
However, organizational culture becomes a sort of utopia, when the desired representations are given for the reality, which is actually quite different. Not always the organizational culture can be considered the basic factor of management not to invest in it and the meaning that managers associate with the word "culture".
The reason of false representations about the organizational culture lies on the surface. Always flattering to think that the organization is open and customer-oriented enterprise, believing that these two positive quality characteristic. Often such views are unrealistic, does not reflect the real situation. Apparently, bad managers know what their employees think and probably don't want to know.
From the point of view of functionality, the organizational culture helps to solve the following tasks:
— coordination with the established procedures and rules of conduct;
— motivation, implemented by explaining to employees the meaning of the performed work;
— profiling which allows to find characteristic difference from other companies;
— engaging staff by promoting job candidates advantages of the enterprise.
Basically, organizational culture is able to implement these and other features, but not everyone has the appropriate legal authority. So, many enterprises have a corporate culture that not only impedes the achievement of success in economic terms, but does not allow to recognize themselves and use their ability in the interests of the company.
To assess the effectiveness of the control system (and therefore the effectiveness of the organizational culture), the ultimate goal is creating and placing on the market of products (services) can be used to the full efficiency of resource use indicator — the modified indicator resourcearray, taking into account, among other factors, the market of financial - credit relations and inflation.
In addition to the main generalizing indicator of efficiency for a more complete assessment of organizational culture should apply a number of auxiliary indicators such as the level of production relations in the control range, the degree of stability of staff, etc.
To develop measures on increase of level of organizational culture it is also necessary to determine the relative efficiency. The fact that the ability to measure the effectiveness of organizational culture does not mean that its development goes in the direction to the ideal. To solve this problem based on matching the existing and desired organizational culture using social indicator — the index of culture, displaying, using the method of correlation, the relationship of power, rules of conduct and values in the organization.