Activation and promotion
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
One of the most important conditions for achieving the objectives of securing the commitment of all participants of management process in the effectiveness of their actions.
This is the contents of the function energizing and stimulating. For the successful achievement of goals must be implemented: 1) incentives, i.e. encouraging employees to be active with the help of external factors (material and moral incentives); 2) motivation, i.e. creating the employees internal motivations to work. Important is: motivation, the need for labour activity, experience feelings of satisfaction from work.
Motivation is the process by which the Manager activates people and motivates them to work effectively to achieve the goals of the organization, as a means of satisfying their own desires.
In the literature on governance made repeated attempts to reduce motivational tendencies of human behavior in certain systems and on this basis to provide relevant theory. One of the possible variants of classification of such theories, in our opinion preferable. In this diagram all of the most popular theories of motivation are divided into two categories: content theories of motivation focused on defining the needs and related factors that determine people's behavior; procedural theories of motivation are based on the analysis of how the person distributes efforts for achievement of various purposes and as chooses a concrete kind of behavior.
Substantial theories of motivation. These theories are based on the definition of human needs and their structure. Need is the perceived lack of something that causes a call to action. Primary requirements inherent in a person genetically, and secondary are produced in the course of learning and gaining experience. Needs can be met by compensation, i.e. the fact that man considers valuable. And there are external rewards — wages, bonuses, promotion and inner — sense of success in achieving the goals derived from the work itself.
Substantial theories of motivation include, first and foremost, identify the needs that motivate people to action. Among these theories include the theory of Maslow, McClelland and Herzberg.
Theory of hierarchy of needs by A. Maslow. According to this theory the success of encouraging employees to productive work depends on how correctly takes into account the relevant needs of the person. All the needs of man according to the theory of Maslow can be kept in a strict hierarchy.
1. The physiological needs. These include: food, water, shelter, rest, and sexual needs.
2. The need for security and confidence in the future. This includes the need for protection from physical and psychological abuse from the outside world, as well as the assurance that in the future physiological needs will be satisfied, for example, through a secure and reasonably well paid work.
3. Social needs. These include a sense of belonging to a social group (family, relatives, friends, colleagues in work and Hobbies).
4. The need for respect. Includes need for personal achievement, competence, recognition and respect from others.
5. The need for self-esteem. It is the need of self-expression, realizing its potential and growth as a person.
The merit of Maslow is that he all the needs of man arranged in a strict hierarchical structure, shown in Fig. 3.13 .
These needs are manifested in a person in a strict sequence. For example, the first satisfied of the so-called basic needs. They are associated with survival. According to Maslow, we are working first and foremost to meet our basic needs.
After basic needs are successfully satisfied, the gain value needs the next level, especially the need for security, there is a need to be sure that basic needs will continue to be satisfied with. The need for belonging to a social group is the need to unite with other people. The need for self-esteem needs to satisfy the ego of man, and the need for self-actualisation is the need of self-expression and realization of a desirable.
Maslow said that "humans are hungry creatures," seeking to satisfy unmet needs.
Hierarchy of needs according to Maslow allows you to make a very important conclusion about the motivating power of money.
Conducted research on the use of money as a motivating factor has led to the following conclusions:
1. Stimulus money can only serve for 10 - 30% of the employees, but they will not affect the remaining 90-70% of the workers.
2. Manager who wants to use the money as the driving force to work, must:
a) to pick up on relevant people;
b) pay them quite a large premium (30% to 100% of base salary);
C) create "money" attitude in the working group.
Money and only money, as studies have shown, are not decisive motivator of the productive and qualitative work. The most powerful motivator of labour processes is job satisfaction: the joy of work, personal involvement in its results, confidence in competence, importance to the organization, the opportunity to Express themselves in work, personal growth, freedom in choosing of actions respect from the management.
In those cases, if the person is not satisfied with his work, if it is a burden to him, he is restless even when his basic needs are satisfied. That's why it's so important to choose the right profession, find themselves in, and that it seek to Express themselves. Given that the human potential to grow and expand, the need for expression can never be fully satisfied. Therefore, we can say with certainty: the process of motivation of human behaviour through the needs are endless.
It follows a very important practical conclusion: the Manager must carefully study their subordinates and be clear about what active needs to move them. Given the dynamic nature of human needs, the Manager is very important to note changes in these needs and accordingly to change to meet the needs.
Theory of needs McClelland. The theory of David McClellan - Yes is like a truncated version of the model of motivation Maslow. His model of motivation focuses on the needs of higher levels.
He proceeded from the fact that people have three needs of power, success and involvement.
The need for power is expressed as desire to influence other people.
The need of success is met in the process of bringing the work to a successful conclusion.
The need for involvement is expressed in the human desire to participate in solving the most important tasks in the organization.
Manager, with data on the prevailing needs of their subordinates, must elect the option of motivation, which in the greatest measure will promote achievement of the goals of both the employee and the organization. For example, if you want to motivate people with the need of success, you need to set out their tasks with a moderate degree of risk or possibility of failure to delegate sufficient authority to unleash the initiative in solving tasks, regularly and specifically to encourage them in accordance with the achieved results.
Two-factor theory of Herzberg. Developed by Frederick Herzberg model of motivation based on human needs, is called the theory of two factors. The first group includes hygiene factors. They relate to the environment in which the work is performed, and include: company policy, working conditions, salary, interpersonal relations, leadership style, guarantees of continuing employment. According to Herzberg, if the leadership of the organization does not provide due attention to the mentioned factors, a person has a dissatisfaction with work. However, the adequacy of these factors is not by itself a cause for satisfaction with work and can't motivate a person anything. The second group includes motivation, related to the very nature and essence of the work. This labor achievements, recognition, responsibility, professional and career development.
The absence or inadequacy of those motivations have not lead to job dissatisfaction. However, the security of them fully raises job satisfaction and motivates employees to increase productivity. The practical conclusion of the theory of motivation of Herzberg is the following. In order to achieve motivation, the Manager must ensure that there is not only hygienic, but also motivating factors.
A brief analysis and comparative evaluation of the various theories of needs. All three substantial theories of motivation have much in common.
For example, hygiene factors Herzberg correspond to physiological needs, needs for security and confidence in the future, and his motivation is comparable to the needs of the higher levels of Maslow. However, these theories have fundamental differences. Maslow believed that if an employee meets one of the primary needs with the Manager, then it will work better.
Herzberg believed that employee starts to pay attention to hygiene factors (primary, basic and according to Maslow) only if in his opinion the implementation in relation to it is inadequate or unfair.The McClelland theory and the power and success corresponds to the secondary needs, according to Maslow and motivational factors of Herzberg. As for the "need for affiliation" on the theory of McClelland, it is consistent with the "social needs" in Maslow and "hygiene factors" by Herzberg.
A comparison of the main characteristics of the models of Maslow, McClelland and Herzberg.
Procedural theories of motivation. The essence of the procedural theories of individual behavior is that they view the line of human behavior not only as a function of its needs, but also as a function of perception and expectations associated with the process situation.
Approach to motivation from the process perspective suggests that human behavior can be controlled by rearranging the environment or the process in which the employee works. The main procedural theories of motivation are expectancy theory, a theory of justice and model of porter-Lawler.
The expectancy theory. This approach is based on the experiments of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. This approach is based "theory of preferences-the expectations" developed in 1964 by Victor Vroom. In accordance with this theory, motivation depends on three factors:
1. Expectations of the possible result;
2. The expected reward from this result;
3. The expected value of the reward.
The practical conclusion of the theory of expectations is that the Manager needs to represent the needs of workers and to suggest adequate compensation. Moreover, to effectively motivate the Manager must establish a solid relationship between achievement and reward.
A theory of justice. A theory of justice, explaining the motivation that argues that people subjectively evaluate the fairness of remuneration for the efforts and associate it with the reward of others. If a person believes that his colleague received for the same work, more reward, then he has the psychological tension that can lead to changes in the level of effort. Hence, it is necessary to remove this tension, to restore justice, to motivate the employee. The practical conclusion of the theory of justice is that until, until the person begins to believe that his true reward, he will seek to reduce labor intensity.
Model Of Porter-Lawler. Three years after Vroom Edward Lo - uler and Lyman porter proposed a comprehensive extended version of the model of Vroom, which combines the expectations theory and the theory of justice. According to this model the level of effort is determined by the value of remuneration and the degree of confidence that this level of effort will indeed entail a certain level of remuneration. Lawler and porter considered the rewards and their perceived fairness as a missing link of the model of Vroom between performance and satisfaction. The internal rewards that implement higher-level needs, represented as a more likely cause of satisfaction and further motivation than external rewards.
One of the most important conclusions from this model is that productive work conducts to satisfaction, and not Vice versa, as was commonly believed.
Factors that motivate employees, constantly developing and changing. So, the EU Commission in the late 80-ies conducted a survey among the employees of the countries of the Community: "what is better — to earn more, while maintaining the current length of the working week, or to reduce the working week at the same salary?"
This survey and other studies show that people now strive for challenging work and personal development. Move from a buyers market to a sellers market for labor, where workers will have the opportunity to look for the most suitable company, and not Vice versa. Now even at us in Russia is heating up competition for talented, educated employees, and successful organizations employ a wide range of creative stimuli, one of which is flexible working hours.