The essence of the organizational structure and its determining factors
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The nature and content of the control system are manifested in its functions, and its organizational structure.
Execution of control functions is possible with the use of different organizational forms, types, and structures. It is important that they complement the contents and methods of work and contributed to their effectiveness.
Organizational structure is the composition (specialization), the interconnection and subordination of separate administrative units and individual positions.
The organizational structure is influenced by a number of factors, different in nature and influence the structure. To build the management structure is very important to know the factors of its forming.
It is possible to identify the factors that directly affect the governance structure, and factors whose effects can become evident, OPOS - Redstone, indirectly, factors that determine the structure, and the factors which influence the structure, but in General are themselves determined by it; factors associated with the object and subject of management; factors in relation to the management structure are "external" factors and "internal".
As directly interacting on the structure of the factors are components of the mechanism of management — objectives, principles, methods.
Market requirements and management goals have a direct impact on the organizational structure. The value of the target approach in the formation of governance structures is constantly increasing. The system goals of the organization is the main highlight in the governance structure of independent units responsible for the achievement of a specific goal. So, in the system production goals of the organization increasing the proportion of the gains to ensure high rate of implementation of NTP, socio-economic development and environmental protection. Accordingly, to achieve these goals are reinforced and provided with the necessary organizational structural unit.
When you build a management structure is of particular importance not only to the question of how to divide the activities of the organization into horizontal, i.e., to determine which tasks must address each structural unit. Another important aspect of building the organization is the division of work vertical. To decide which element of the hierarchical structure must make the crucial decisions — the case of the top management of the organization. This determines the form of the organizational structure and the effectiveness of management decisions.
The strengthening of economic methods, the expansion of economic independence leads to a reduction of management levels, to the elimination of some and the emergence of other structural units (marketing, etc.).
The main factors that influence the structure are the control functions, their composition, contents and volume. The development of the functions of management and explains the causes development of the governance structure. The management structure also directly affected the scale and complexity of production (type of production), the nature of the products and the technology used; the nature of scientific and technological progress and the methods of implementation (the rate of renewal of products and technologies, the integration of science and production, etc.); the degree of concentration, specialization and cooperation of production; the size and territorial distribution of production.
Along with the factors that operate on the structure directly, it should highlight the factors influencing the structure more of OPOS - Redstone. This group of factors includes personnel, technology, management, labor organization. These factors, although affecting the structure, but in General are themselves determined by it. So, personnel management influence the structure in terms of its refinement, correction, some redistribution of functions between structures and individual employees. But it's still the corrective factors, as basically it was the management structure defines the composition of positions and the requirements for quality workers.
The introduction of this system and arm affect the management structure, both in terms of the emergence of new divisions (information services) and the reduction of employees of certain departments (e.g., accountants). However, this factor is not determinative, as all these innovations occur within the existing structures.
The rationality of organizational structure is determined by the optimal combination of content and number of internal and external relations of the control object. Advantageously, the internal connection object prevailed over the look, otherwise the latter will have a negative effect on the stability of the object.
An increasing number of researchers comes to the conclusion about the objective effect of the real production process in the specific organizational forms of enterprises, i.e. the priority of the production structure in the design of governance structures.
The most important factor influencing the formation of organizational structure is the norm of manageability. It depends on how the number of employees in the unit and the number of units of the apparatus.
Thus, the formation of the management structure need to consider many factors: objectives and functions, the scope of work and normal handling. We have to consider the impact of the individual employee and use of funds management techniques. In the interaction of such factors, it is important to highlight the main presenter. It almost depends on the characteristics of the situation, General situation, etc. the formation of the real structure is the art of management. Here influence and insight Director, and his intuition, and his predictions about the nature of the development, production and management.