Methods of carrying out works to improve organizational structures
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
A large variety of organizational and technical conditions of production, possibilities of information acquisition, expertise of developers has led to different methods of implementing improvements to organizational structures. Currently, the most known of them are following: 1. The expert method is the preliminary study of the current governance structure, identify its bottlenecks. To this end, a diagnostic study of the control system, in order to examine its condition based on the comparison of the actual values of the relevant indicators with regulatory and planning their values. Subsequent analysis of these indicators allows you to set deficiencies (reserves) in the activity management system, to put the exact diagnosis. As a rule, this work is accompanied by the conduct of the so-called predictive Analytics, whose task is to study the behavior of the current system dynamics, identification of trends, as well as an explanation of the reasons for these changes. Expert method in the practice of improvement of organizational structures is widely used. This is due to the insufficient development of quantitative methods of analysis, shortcomings in the regulatory framework and other reasons. The advantage of the Expert method is the relative speed of obtaining the results of the analysis and development of recommendations on elimination of non - ostatkov organizational structure.
I 2. The method of comparison and analogies is to use when you improve the organization of the control elements of the mechanism of "governance, organizational forms and solutions that have proven themselves in practice at the enterprises with similar conditions (size, type of production, complexity of products etc.).
The method of comparison and analogies involves the development and use of Osipovich governance structures, span of control, the model structure of functions of management, different calculation formulas for determining the ratios of the number of managerial employees. It should be noted that this method is the most common IV present in the practice of industrial design of institutov, businesses and associations. The widespread use of the method led to the unification of organizational structures of management the enterprises of the industry, organizing, staffing, regulatory management and administrative activities.
Of course, in the conditions of various constructions of organizational structures, methods of determining the number of employees in management functions, lack of qualified specialists in management organization this approach was progressive and played a positive role. However, he focuses on the average composition of the management functions puts severe restrictions in the choice of organizational structures.
The main content of the method consists in identification of groups of homogeneous companies based on volumes and complexity of the work. Each group developed a model organizational structure, and other typical solutions for building management staff.
3. Method of structuring objectives based on the representation of production and economic organization as a multi-purpose system. Method involves the structuring of goals (tasks) of the organization according to certain criteria, which serve as the basis for the selection of activities of administrative work. Group management works according to certain rules gives the possibility to determine the structural units and to Orient their activities to achieve specific production and economic goals.
4. Methods of organizational modeling is based on the use of certain formal representations (models) of the object and control system. Among the group methods of organizational modeling, the most well-known method, which is based on decomposition of the information process of performing management work. According to the method in production processes allocate points places requiring control actions. Next, establish the nature and frequency of these effects, the composition and amounts of information, the necessary technical means and other components of the management process. Process development management is subject to the regulatory requirements for their organization. Based on the characteristics of the developed process control (frequency, complexity, etc.) establish the number of employees, their subordination in the course of performing the management work of the departments of the Executive office.
The methods of organizational modeling should include methods that use parametric dependence of object and subject of management.
The essence of these methods lies in establishing the relations of the parameters of the control system from a production-technical factors in determining the direction of action and the closeness of these ties. The advantage of parametric methods is to study the quantitative characteristics for the description of the management system and its structure.
In recent years, the possibilities of organizational modelling tasks, improving management systems has increased in connection with a broader and more judicious use of personal computers. With the help of computers and mathematical models have made possible the simulation of different situations of management activity that expands the scope of the system analysis allows to study and predict organizational changes in the management system in the near and distant future, provides a more effective solution to problems arising in the process of development of production tasks. The most important of them include the choice of rational organizational structure of the enterprise management area, the definition of levels of centralization and decentralization of control, on the basis of specific operating conditions, the allocation of responsibilities between the specialists of different levels on management decisions, etc.
The choice of a particular method of undertaking works to improve control depends on the nature of the challenges faced in this area, the availability of resources, skilled performers, the degree of validity of normative and methodological base and other conditions. In practice, typically use a combination of the methods, which complement one another. For example, the use of the method of structuring goals in many cases requires the involvement of experts, analytical information. On the other hand, the use of expert method for the improvement of the management system does not preclude the use of standard solutions, unique, well-proven in practice, etc.