Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Interpersonal communication is of great importance for effective management. On the one hand, from 50 to 90% of the time the head spends on conversations. But first, the solution of many management problems is based on the direct interaction of people in various situations; and second, interpersonal communication is the best way to discuss and resolve issues characterized by uncertainty and ambiguity.Barriers or noise occurring in interpersonal communication, usually grouped as follows: barriers due to perception; semantics; and using non-verbal exchange of information; ineffective feedback and poor listening skills.
The barriers caused by perception. The Manager must be aware of the process of perception, since that is what determines "reality for the individual". People react not that really occurs in their environment, and what is perceived as occurring. The factors influencing the perception of the process of information exchange, allows to eliminate the barriers caused by perception. One of these barriers occurs due to the mismatch of competencies of the sender and recipient. People can differently interpret the same information, depending on experience. Hence arise difficulties of organizations in the exchange of information, differences in interpretation of received messages and ideas that are encoded by the sender may be distorted and not fully understood by the recipient.
Another reason for the difficulties of perception in the communication process is the existence of barriers caused by social attitudes of people.
Semantics studies the way of using words and values that are passed in words. Because the words (characters) can have different meanings for different people, respectively, the interpretation of the message will depend on these differences.
The symbol has a unique integral value. The value of the character is revealed through experience and varies depending on the context, a situation in which the used symbol. Because each person has his own experience and every act of exchange information to some extent is a new situation, nobody can be absolutely sure that the other person will attribute the same meaning to the used symbols.
Non-verbal barriers. Although verbal symbols (words) is the primary means of encoding ideas intended for the transmission, people use to transmit messages and nonverbal symbols. Often non-verbal transmission occurs simultaneously with verbal and can enhance or change the meaning of words. Nonverbal symbols are like smiles, gestures, intonation and modulation of voice, tempo, and rhythm of speech, etc. Some studies have shown that often most of the information is in oral contact is transmitted through nonverbal symbols.
So postures, intonations and gestures of the head in the process of communication with subordinates can affect behaviour much more than the words that he utters.
The fact that the effect of most of the messages created non-verbal information: 55% of the message is perceived through facial expression, posture and gesture and 38% through tone and modulation of voice, that is, words have only 7% of the perceived information.
Nonverbal communication in most cases have an unconscious basis, as evidence of the actual kamiyah party communication process and is an indicator to show feelings. Nonverbal information is difficult to handle and difficult to hide in any interpersonal communication.
Ineffective feedback. Others limit the effectiveness of interpersonal exchange of information could be the lack of adequate feedback about sent you a message. Feedback is important because it allows you to install (whether the transmitted message is correctly interpreted by the recipient. Since there are many sources of noise (distorting the content of the message, feedback is a (the only means to guarantee the reliability of communication.
Inability to listen. Effective exchange of information possible (only when both sender and receiver of information are equally focused on communication. In particular, it is necessary to be able to listen. Unfortunately, many have not learned to listen with (the degree of efficiency which, in principle, possible. People (traditionally not paid sufficient attention to the development of listening skills.
Many people think that listening means only to behave quietly and let the other person speak. However, this is only a small fragment of a careful process of concentrated listening. Studies have shown that the average Manager in fact listens with only 25% efficiency. But few understand the facts — you need to listen to feelings.