Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Although communication in organizations often have the character of interpersonal, but not always the problems of their organizations limited to interpersonal barriers. Often in the way of effective communication and, accordingly, the organization's success raises specific barriers associated with various problems of organizations like the integrity of the system. These organizational barriers in communication deserve special attention, since their nature is associated not with the specifics of individual or group human behavior, and non-communications problems of organizations, we are talking about the distortion of messages, information overload and poor organization.
The distortion of messages. When information moves internally up and down, the meaning of the message may be distorted. This distortion can be due to several reasons. Messages can be distorted unintentionally because of difficulties in interpersonal contacts, as mentioned above. However, a significant role in the emergence of distortions are other factors.
First, perhaps conscious distortion of the information source. This distortion may take place, for example, when the message is used to assess the activity of the source and modifies it so that the change point occurred in his interests.
Another important problem of the exchange is related to the filtering of information. Filtering is the process of loss of a part of flushed messages in connection with the inevitable losses of any nature when moving up or down by management level or within one level of the organization from one employee to another.
Filtration is carried out when aggregating messages, as they move up through the levels of the management hierarchy, with selective selection of the information when it is distributed among various recipients, targeted at cutting off the head of the General information and the simplification of messages in case of transmission of specific guidance to subordinates, etc.
Managers, who transmit messages and determine what to convey, emanate from the desire to overcome all sorts of obstacles in interpersonal relationships, self-evaluation of the importance and usefulness to the case particular information. This can push them to the exclusion of some and the emphasis on other messages. Such a selection may cause the missing of important information in another sector of the organization or receipt of information there is a significant distortion of the content. Thus, in one study cited evidence that "only 63% of the content of information sent by the Board of Directors, reached the Vice-presidents, 40% — to the heads of departments and 20% to the workers."
There are other possible causes of filtration. For example, messages sent up the stairs of the management hierarchy, can be distorted in the power of trends to provide the authorities, capabilities, positive perceived information. This can cause the slave does not inform the supervisor about potential or existing problem, as "doesn't want to tell the boss bad news." Since subordinates often want to get [approval from the head, they can tell him only what ion wants to hear. Studies show that this STA - Itoshii differences strongly affect the quality of information exchange. Among other reasons, which prevent workers to pass [top accurate information, there may be fear of punishment and feeling of the futility of their cause.
Information overload. Another important reason why the content of the message may not reach the recipient, overload the recipient's other incoming messages or "not- (a disposition" of his on the subject of the message. In this case the transmitted message to the recipient, too, will not come.
Unsatisfactory structure of the organization. In organizations with a complex layered structure, may cause other kind of problems. As we discussed above, units within the organization are themselves organizations, thus, they inevitably have their own goals. Therefore, if [the organization structure and incentive program built fails, own goals units may collide next to the shared goals of the organization and, in particular, to block the channels
■ communications. The more levels in the structure of the organization, the
■ the greater the likelihood of a substantial controversy.
To overcome these obstacles, both orally and in written communications adopted the system of "Five "With" communications":
1. Clarity (Clarity). The message information must be as unambiguous as possible. Often the lack of clarity is caused by attempt to Express in one sentence too many thoughts.
2. Completeness (Completeness). Simplification of information can lead to incompleteness. Some of the information may be more harmful than its complete absence.
3. Brevity (Conciseness). When Neil McElroy (Neil McElroy) was President of the "Procter and gamble" (Procter & Gamble), he refused to read any memo, if it took more than one page. One expert has developed a win-win method to convert ignorance in apparent communication success. System Broutona uses a vocabulary of thirty carefully selected "noise words" (see table. 4.1). The combination of these noise words are impressive. However, the majority of communications is improved, when a few well-chosen words to replace wordy message with carelessly chosen words. In the case of long rambling messages, the problem is rarely tied to the vastness of the topic. More often it is the inability of the Communicator to make concrete the message he wants to convey.
4. The Specificity (Concreteness). Usually the communicators resort to abstractions and generalizations, when they are not quite sure in real, concrete facts. Abstraction, of course, is of value when we are dealing with abstract concepts. However, we're wasting precious time and abilities, when to squeeze real things in abstract or idiomatic terminology in order to impress.
The choice of specific terminology is becoming increasingly important with the growing interaction of Nations. The term that is acceptable in one culture in another culture may be totally unacceptable meaning.
5. Correctness (Correctness). Impeccable use of methods of communication completely useless if the message is incorrect.
The procedure is simple. Think of any three digit number, then select the appropriate stop words from each column. For example, if the number 257 gives a "systematized logistical projection" — a phrase that you can drop almost any report in a tone of sort of a competent specialist. No one even remotely represents what you are saying, but the point is that they do not allow themselves to admit it.
A small exaggeration, and unwarranted generalizations can lead to large communication barriers. To solve problems in organizational communications based on modern information technology is also used: the creation of backward linkages, regulating information flows, deploying a system of gathering proposals, publishing newsletters.