The concept and the essence of technology management processes
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Analysis of content management processes suggests that they are similar to the processes of material production in the sense that they are both labour processes. That is the meaning of the term "technology" should be put in a basis of technology of production and management processes, as it is its essence, the more that any process control is carried out on a particular technology.
The aim of management is to increase the efficiency of managerial labor based on specialization, division of the process into separate operations, rational construction and sequence of operations, using modern technology and scientifically based standards establish the complexity of work performed.
For employees of the Department subject labor are different types of information, based on which to develop management decision — effective information that reflects a direction of influence on the managed object by the respective control functions.
The objects of management may be different processes:
- the execution order of the individual control functions or their combination;
- decision-making in the implementation of certain control tasks;
- processing document or group of documents.
Control technology is divided into two types: functional and substantive. Functional technology considers the techniques and methods of work for the implementation of a function (including leadership style, etc.). The subject considers the technology of processing various types of information. In practice is used the combined technology when the functional unit or the machine control in General, information processing and decision making are performed by subject-function.
Management relations in the production system are in specific forms and contents. Organizational forms of management entrenched in the structure (apparatus) control and the content — management process.
The management process involves a set of coupled, interacting technological cycles, procedures, operations, and individual actions of employees of the administrative apparatus, based on a functional operations and technology and vocational qualification division of labor.
Technology management jobs — rational series of operations and procedures (informational, logical-thinking, design computing, organizational) that are performed by managers, specialists and technical performers, either manually or by using technical means. This should be provided with the minimum duration of the management cycle and the cost of its execution.
The basis of technology perform repetitive work operation, homogeneous, logical, indivisible part of the management process aimed at achieving one specific purpose, implemented by the contractor.
The concept of "operation" and "procedure" are key in studying technology management. The concept of "operation" has a wide meaning and covers all sorts of reasonable steps: production, commercial, technological, economic, managerial etc.
An operation is any action, the event (or system events), and United by a common idea and aimed at achieving a particular goal.
A set of actions performed in a single operation, may consist of several elements, so the operation can be considered as a sum of elements of work processes performed by employees of the administrative apparatus. At the basis of the operations should lie primarily with the trust. the completeness of the action against the contractor. The concept of the procedure reflects the procedure of preparation, consideration, discussion, performing a series of sequential and parallel operations in the process of governance. A management procedure is a set of consistently implemented regulations (the regulations) of the organizational, informational and other activities that lead to solving problems facing [the object or subject of management.
Thus, the management process consists of more or less sequential or parallel operations and procedures, components of the overall control technology. The property of repeatability inherent to the processes of governance, creates conditions for their advanced design, based on a comprehensive analysis of production conditions and develop the most efficient solutions.
For example, "write a request to retrieve the tool" on-call operation, as it does not reflect. The aim in this case is to obtain a tool from Central tool storage. To get the tool, you need to issue the demand, to register it in the journal, to collect signatures of responsible persons etc. All of this technique for the instrumental group, whose duty is the writing of the requirements, acts as a technological operation.
Therefore, at the basis of the operations should lie primarily with the target orientation on the final result of an action.
In the development of technologies of production management should be guided by the well-known in the organization of production principles of specialization, proportionality, parallelism, promotionale, continuity and rhythm.
The principle of specialization means that division of operations, making possible the centralization of similar operations, allows you to apply for the most effective technical means of mechanization of control processes. With this purpose, there are different structural units, which are fixed standard of work — dictaphone, typewriting, duplicating, etc.
To increase the level of specialization also contributes to the unification and normalization of forms of documents used designations, methods of work, clear regulation of responsibilities and accountabilities of each employee.
The principle of proportionality in the organization of the technical documentation and record-keeping law provides for equal throughput of all design and back-office units. This can be achieved by staffing all departments required technical facilities and personnel qualified in accordance with the standards and norms of their number. This should take into account the amendments to change the scope of work in the intervals of peak loads.
The principle of parallelism provides such organization of office and registration in which the individual processes and operations may be performed in parallel. Parallelism is achieved by combining stages of work over time that reduces cycle duration deloproizvodstva processes (for example, synchronous reproduction of the document and sending it into units for parallel processing).
To speed up workflow is a very important principle of promotionale, the essence of which is to eliminate the return movements of the documentation, loops and congestion.
The last two principles of organization of the system — continuity and rhythm in relation to government processes should be considered from the point of view of ensuring the target function information service.
The common methodological approach of all of the authors to technology management processes is that it is based on they consider the decision-making process. This allows you to approach the specialization of workers and management to determine the place of managers, specialists and technical performers in the technology management processes.