Styles of leadership and management
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
A strong Manager must be a strong leader. The Manager does not possess the skills of leadership, similar to a lifeguard who is afraid of water, no matter the knowledge, if it can't be used.
Held in 1988, a survey of 1,500 managers of European companies showed that the most important leadership qualities of leaders include the ability to form an effective team (96%), to listen to opinion of colleagues and subordinates (93%), make decisions (87%) and to engage others in their implementation (86%). The most widely recognized and the allocation of leadership styles system developed by the American industrial psychologist Ensinam Lajkertom. He identified four leadership styles:
Exploitative-authoritative style. Managers of this style impose their decisions to subordinates, motivation is posredstvom threats, top levels of management have an important responsibility while lower — practically it are not inadequate communication skills. Managers of this style comes from the theory of "X" McGregor.
Benevolently-authoritarian style. The Manager treats his employees, unlike the first case, already indulgently, paternally. Motivation is based on rewards. The management staff already has some responsibility, but this applies mostly to the average level. This style is also characterized by low sociability and lack of group work.
Consultative and democratic style. Managers of this style have already consulted with their subordinates and strive constructively to use the best of what they offer. Motivation is not only due remuneration, but also in the form of some connection to management. Most of the managerial personnel feel responsibility for achieving organization's goals. Communication is both top down and bottom up. There are average group work.
The democratic style or system group participation. It is based on the involvement of subordinates as to the definition of the objectives of the organization or unit and monitor their achievement. Managers complete trust in subordinates. Motivation is by economic rewards based on goals of the organization. Staff at all levels feel real responsibility for the goals of the organization; there are many communication links, there are great possibilities of group work. Managers of this style based on the theory "Y" of McGregor.
The organization where this style dominates, are characterized by a high degree of decentralization, active participation of employees in decision-making. Likert and a number of other scientists believed that such a system is ideal for profit-driven organizations. However, the findings of the Likert not applicable to all situations.
In some cases, under the leadership of the autocratic Manager are able to perform more work than in a democracy. But for that you have to pay less original solutions, low enthusiasm, increased aggressiveness of people to each other and to the head and simultaneously more dependent and submissive command.
In addition to leadership style, balancing between democracy and aristocracy, there are also styles that focus on ' condition or results of operation, or per person, the favorable climate in the team.
A similar classification was proposed by Robert Blake and Jane Magon from the University of Texas. They presented it in the form of managerial grid or lattice which includes 5 main styles of leadership.
Grid is a 9x9 table positions. Vertically recorded 9 degrees "care", horizontal 9 degrees of "care proceedings". The grid can be used in parallel with the psychological tests on the pros and cons of managers.
The first style of management 1.1. — fear of poverty. A minimal effort on the part of the Manager as to save the team and for the organization and improvement of production. Included only those efforts that allow it to avoid dismissal.
The 1.9 management style called "management in the style of a country club." The Manager focuses on good human relationships, but cares little about the development of production.
Management style 9.1 called "power-subordination", is characterized by a high level of concern for production and low concern for people. Sometimes called "management problems." When the management style 5.5 — "organizational management" — Manager equally divides its focus between the development of production and the formation of good relations in the team, but nobody uses his full potential.
And finally, 9.9 — style "group control", which is based on the enhanced attention of the Manager to the subordinate and at the same time production. Creates a team where people consciously join the organization. Ensured high morale and high production efficiency.
Managerial grid the Blake-Mouton is not the only approach to this problem. For example, there is a three-dimensional table of Reggina, which extends the two-dimensional grid of Blake-Mouton by adding the third factor — efficiency.
Based on current situational theory models were built by Fred Fiedler, Terence Mitchell and Robert house, Paul Hershey and Kenneth Blanchard, Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton .
In order for the Manager to work effectively, it needs to use different leadership styles depending on the specific situation. Chris Argyris on this occasion he noticed that the "best" leadership style is "adaptive" or "oriented to reality".