Power and personal influence, the authority of the Manager
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The Manager's job is that he forces others to do something the way he wants to. Because of paramount importance here is the efficient use of the status of the leader of influence and power. In the seventeenth century to Nicholas Machiavelli in his "Prince" pointed out that power and manipulation are the levers of government.
Power is a right that man possesses due to the fact of the official position which he occupies in the organizational structure. Power, if viewed from this perspective, is interpersonal in nature and has nothing to do with a specific person occupying his position. On the contrary, the authority to a great extent personalized and relevant to the person's ability to achieve objectives through influencing of others. Thus, the authority is a direct result of the influence of human personality.
There are instances where senior managers who have all the rights that accompany positions in the corridors of Executive power, have apparently little authority or ability to influence others. There are also many people who do not have formal rights to influence others who nevertheless became extremely influential.
The power head can take various forms. Thus, according to the classification of French and Raven it has five main forms:
1. Power based on coercion. The contractor believes that the influence has the ability to punish in a manner that will prevent the satisfaction of some need, or can cause some other troubles.
2. Power based on reward. The contractor believes that the influence has the ability to satisfy an immediate need or pleasure.
3. Expert power. The executor believes that impact has special knowledge that allows to satisfy the demand.
4. The reference power (power of example). The characteristics or properties affecting so attractive to the performer that he wants to be the same as impact.
5. The contractor believes that the influence has the right to give orders and that his duty to obey them. These bases of power are an instrument by which Manager can get his subordinates to do the work, but they are tools that can be used an informal leader that possesses the authority to frustrate the objectives of the organization.
The Manager has authority over subordinates, but in some situations, and subordinates have power over the head, as the latter depend on them for such matters as are necessary for decision-making information, informal contacts with people in other departments, etc.
It follows that the Manager should understand and take into account the fact that since subordinates also often have the power, use of unilateral power in its full extent may cause subordinates such a reaction when they want to demonstrate their own power. Therefore, you should maintain a reasonable balance of power: sufficient to achieve the objectives of the organization, but not causing negative subordinate reactions.
In all cases, when we are dealing with the government, implied the degree of influence of the Manager on subordinate. Influence is the behavior of one individual that modifies the behavior of another.
The authority, as already stated, is the most important factor of personal influence.
Authority is the confidence, which the Manager uses subordinates, superiors and colleagues at work. This recognition of the individual, evaluation by the staff of the conformity of the subjective skills of the Manager objective requirements. The authority of the head associated with the performance of its core functions according to the position, must be supported by personal example and high moral character. In this sense, we must distinguish between two sources (status) credibility: the official determined by the position (job status); the real authority is the actual effect, the real trust and respect (subjective status).
A leader, a credible, likable people, has a positive effect on them.
Concern about the authority of the head — not only his own business, but senior management and head level, and especially subordinates, which are designed to strengthen, protect and promote. The authority should be seen as a factor facilitating governance, enhancing its effectiveness.
Strengthening the authority, the Manager should ensure that it does not suppress them, do not stifle the initiative of subordinates. Artificial methods of formation of the authority do not lead to success; the result is imaginary, or false authority (pseudomaturity). A. S. Makarenko singled out the following types of pseudomaturity:
the authority range — the Manager believes that its credibility increases if it distanciruemsa from subordinates and keeps them officially;
the authority of kindness "always be kind" — this is the credo of this head. Kindness reduces the requirements;
the credibility of pedantry — in this case, the Manager has resorted to micro-manage and strictly defines all stages of the job to subordinates, thus restricting their creativity and initiative;
authority arrogance — head arrogant, proud and tries everywhere to emphasize their former or present imaginary achievements. This head seems that these "services" provide a high level of prestige;
the authority of the suppression Manager uses threats, instilling fear among his subordinates. He mistakenly believes that such methods will strengthen his authority. Ultimately, it robs people of confidence and initiative, creates a reassurance and even dishonesty.
The correct formation and strengthening of authority of the Manager contributes to the management of conflicts and stresses, as will be discussed below.