Nature and types of conflicts
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
In control theory the word "conflict" has many interpretations and definitions. Conflict — the collision of oppositely directed goals, interests, positions, opinions, views two or more people.
The characteristic features of the conflict are:
1) conflicting positions of the parties on a particular issue;
2) opposite goals, interests, desires, inclinations;
3) the difference in means of achieving goals.
Conflict is a fact of human existence. The business world is characterized by the fact that there are different goals and interests of people, firms, companies. So here the conflicts are manifested most clearly and vividly.
Conflict in organizations organizational conflict can take many forms. But whatever the nature of organizational conflict, the Manager must learn to understand and manage. If the conflict in the organization is not controlled, it can lead to either decrease its effectiveness or to its liquidation. On the contrary, managed conflict ensures the prosperity of the organization.
Research shows that all employees of commitment to the conflict can be divided into three groups: resistant to conflicts, kept from conflict and conflict.
The number of the third group is somewhere around 6-7% of the total employees. This is a relatively numerous group of difficult people, creating various incidents in the control system. Approximately the same data are presented by psychologists in foreign countries.
According to English researcher management Robert Brahms, only 10% of employees are difficult subjects. This conclusion is based on a survey of 400 managers of various British companies. In his opinion, to provide in the unit a favorable psychological climate, we must make main efforts to only one tenth of the staff. The remaining 9/10 are striving for orderliness.
It should be borne in mind that conflict occurs within the organization should not necessarily be considered as a negative phenomenon. Modern management theory discusses some of the conflicts as desired. If the conflict provides to a greater extent the implementation of the law of requisite variety helps to find an increasing number of promising alternatives, makes the decision-making group more effective, ensure the actualization of the individual, such conflict is called functional and leads to increased efficiency of the organization. In that context, managers often deliberately stimulate conflict to "shake up" employees to revitalize the organization, to find new, more effective solution. It is believed that if there is no conflict, then there is something wrong. In life there are no conflict-free organizations. It is important that the conflict was not destructive. If people avoid confrontation, the organization is unhealthy. Therefore, the task of the Manager to design a constructive manage conflict.
However, it should be borne in mind and the fact that the individual, most often interpersonal conflicts are destructive. So if the conflict does not achieve the goals of the organization and meets the needs of the individual, such conflict is called dysfunctional, leading to a decrease in personal satisfaction, group collaboration, and organizational effectiveness. The conflict model shown in Fig. 4.7.
Manager in accordance with its role is usually at the centre of conflict in the organization and seeks to resolve it by all means available. Leave a conflict without attention — it's all the same what to write in an empty house embers.
In General, the analogy between the conflict and the fire deep enough: he and the other easier to prevent than to extinguish it;
in both cases, the time factor may be crucial as both the conflict and the terrible fire of their growth. Managing conflict is one of the most important functions of a leader. On average, managers spend about 20% of their time on the study and resolution of various conflicts.
To effectively manage conflict, it is necessary to know not only the nature and types of conflicts, their causes.
Conflict types. There are four basic types (levels) of conflict: intrapersonal, interpersonal, between person and group, intergroup and organizational.
These levels are closely linked. For example, nutrilac - ference conflict may force the individual to act aggressively towards others and to cause thereby the interpersonal conflict.
Sources of conflict can be a lack of resources, the unequal contribution to the cause, lack of independence, unmet expectations, etc. Consider the main types of conflicts.
1. Intrapersonal conflict occurs within an individual and often by nature is a conflict of objectives or cognitive conflict. The objectives conflict intrapersonal conflict becomes when the individual chooses and tries to reach conflicting goals. An example of intrapersonal conflict can be a choice of work graduate of the University. Intrapersonal conflict takes on an interesting hue when the individual recognizes the inadequacy of their thoughts, location, values or their behavior in General. The person begins to feel discomfort and trying to escape from this condition through changes in their thoughts, location, values, and behavior or through obtaining more information about the problem. A certain degree considering insolvency always exists. Otherwise our world would be in constant harmony with the external environment.
2. Interpersonal conflict involves two or more individuals who perceive themselves as being in opposition to each other in relation to the objectives, ways of achieving them, locations, values, or behaviors. It is manifested as a clash of personalities about goals and knowledge, but also in a sensual plan. For example, the struggle of leaders for limited resources, manpower, Finance, etc. Everyone reads that if resources are limited, he must convince the higher management to allocate them to him, and not another Manager.
Another form of manifestation of interpersonal conflict — a clash of personalities with different traits, temperament, and values, which, because of the differences in order are not able to get along with each other. They are not psychologically compatible.
3. The conflict between the individual and the group. A conflict occurs when a person take a position different from the position of the group, when expectations of the group are in conflict with the expectations of the individual.
4. Intergroup conflict occurs in organizations, consisting of many formal and informal groups. Since different groups have their own, distinct from the other groups goal, the inevitable conflicts in even the most efficient organizations. Such a confrontation can wear professional-industrial (designers — production workers — marketing), social (workers and management) or emotional ("lazy" and "workers") basis.
The most striking example is the ongoing conflict between the Union and the administration. It is established that the threat of a strike becomes reality, when the number of dissatisfied employees quality of work or value of remuneration exceeds 50% of the total workforce. Periodic monitoring allows you to identify the causes of dissatisfaction and the number of malcontents and thereby prevent a strike.
In addition, the focus of conflicts are divided into horizontal, vertical and mixed. Refer to horizontal conflicts, which unnerved persons who are subordinate to each other. Vertical conflicts are those involving persons who are subordinate to one another. In mixed conflicts represented by the vertical and horizontal components.
Conflicts with vertical leaves, i.e., vertical and mixed conflicts, are on average 70-80%. They are most undesirable for the head. Every action is viewed through the prism of this conflict.
The nature of the causes of conflicts can be divided into objective and subjective. The first caused by objective reasons, subjective second.