Causes of conflict
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Of the highest praise worthy of the type of leader that avoids conflict, or at least dampens them in the Bud. So, to manage conflicts, they need to foresee, and to foresee, you must know the causes that lead to conflict situations. Every conflict has a cause (source) of the occurrence. The causes of conflicts can be grouped into six major groups.
1. The allocation of resources. Even in the largest organizations, resources are always limited. The leadership is always the problem of how to allocate resources in such a way as to most effectively achieve the goals of the organization as a whole. And how any leader is committed to more resources, the need to share resources lead to different types of conflicts.
2. The interdependence of tasks. A systematic integrated approach in solving the problems of management leads to the fact that most of them are closely interrelated and interdependent. Based on this relationship and essence of system approach is formed and the organizational structure. Improper construction, the outdated organizational structure, unclear delineation of rights and obligations is often a consequence of violations of the principle of unity of command. In case, if the employee has a double, triple discipline, he forced himself to realize received from the heads of the orders according to their degree of importance in its sole discretion, to demand the same from their immediate supervisor, or to grasp at everything.
Thus, the conflict situation there. In this case, the necessary structural reorganization, a clear division and cooperation of labour, delegation of authority, the subordination of interdependent units under one General head of higher rank.
3. The differences in order. All units in the structure of the organization with the specific private purposes. It should be borne in mind that the higher the level of specialization in the departments, the greater the likelihood of conflict. This is explained by the fact that specialized units with their own goals, achieve them pay more attention than the goals of the organization as a whole. For example, the sales Department is interested in production of a wide variety of products, as it coincides with the interests of the consumer, provides an opportunity to increase competitiveness, expand markets, increase sales. Target the same production facilities, expressed in terms of input — output, easier achieved with limited product diversity. In addition, a conflict often arises in situations where the process of achieving the unit's goals conflicting interests of different people or social groups.
The fact is that in an effort to achieve this goal, each individual consciously or unconsciously creates in the depths of his mind a positive outcome of their activities. And when someone or something interferes with the implementation of this intention, a conflict occurs.
4. Differences in perception and values. Goals and desires to achieve them are fundamental in the views of people about certain situations. Objective assessment of the situation is replaced by subjective opinion, focused on a favorable outcome only for them and their group that is causing the conflict. The differences in values is a common cause of conflict. Professional staff research division appreciates freedom and independence. If their leader will closely monitor the discipline and work deadlines, conflict, obviously, is inevitable. This conflict is based on differences in value orientations.
5. The difference in behavior and life experiences. This cause of conflict depends on the characters and temperaments of individuals. There are people who constantly show aggression and hostility towards others and who are willing to challenge every word. These people create around themselves a conflict situation.
Studies show that people with high levels of authoritarianism and dogmatism and low self-esteem in the structure of personality rather are in conflict. The differences in life experiences, values, education, experience, age, and social characteristics reduce the degree of mutual understanding and cooperation between the members of the personnel and increase the potential for conflicts.
6. Unsatisfactory communication. Untimely, incomplete, inaccurate information is a cause of conflict because it creates a tense atmosphere in the unit, leads to the necessity to redo work, tears turnaround time, reduces quality, and hence of remuneration of employees. Other common problems of information transmission, causing the conflict, ambiguous quality criteria, the inability to accurately determine the duties and functions of all employees and departments, as well as the presentation of a mutually exclusive job requirements. Withholding information (including the unconscious), which puts the subordinate in a position of uncertainty (especially in terms of downsizing and reorganizations), also leads to conflicts.