Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
Ideally, it is believed that the Manager should not eliminate conflict but to manage it and to use it effectively.The job of a Manager is performed in the following sequence:
- the study of the causes of the conflict;
- limit the number of participants of the conflict;
- analysis of the conflict;
- resolution of the conflict.
To resolve organizational conflicts is widely used in two ways: structural and interpersonal.
Structural methods. These methods involve the use of changes in the structure of the organization to resolve conflicts, has received development. They are aimed at reducing the intensity of the conflict. Consider the four structural method of conflict resolution.
1. Clarification of job requirements. The Manager must clearly state to subordinates of their rights and responsibilities, what results are expected from each employee and Department. The level of employee performance is defined by certain parameters that specify the source and destination of different information, submission dates, as well as clearly defined policies, procedures and rules.
2. Coordination and integration mechanisms. If subordinates have a disagreement on an issue, conflict can be avoided through a hierarchy of authority, i.e., appeals to their common boss, asking him to make a final decision. The principle of unity of command facilitates the use of hierarchy to manage the conflict situation. To avoid conflict helps the introduction of the special integration mechanism for the conflicting units, for example, a General Deputy, the curator or coordinator, the merger of different units and giving them a common task, the creation of intermediate services to coordinate the work of interdependent divisions (e.g. sales and production).
3. The overarching goals of the enterprise. The idea that is inherent in these objectives is to guide the efforts of all parties to achieve a common goal. Thus, the establishment of clear objectives for the entire organization, will help to ensure that heads of departments will make decisions that ensure the success of the entire organization.
4. The structure of the remuneration system. Using rewards to influence the behavior of people in such a way to avoid the dysfunctional consequences of the conflict. The system of remuneration should be designed to encourage people who contribute to the achievement of common goals, a comprehensive approach to solving problems, and Vice versa punished by a fine for non-constructive behavior.
Interpersonal methods. When you are in a conflict situation, for a more effective solution is to choose a certain style of behavior, taking into account your own style, the style of others involved in the conflict of people, and the nature of the conflict itself. K. W. Thomas and R. H. Kilmann identified five types of strategies (styles) of behavior in conflict situations. Their system allows you to Orient any person in case of falling into a conflict situation with a common source of conflict is the divergence of interests between two or more parties.
The style of behavior of any person in the conflict is determined by the measure of satisfaction of their own interests; activity or passivity of the action; measure the satisfaction of the interests of the other party; an individual or joint action.
Graphically this is portrayed through the net Thomas — Kilmann that defines the location and name of the behaviors(Fig. 4.10).
Based on the proposed model there are five methods of conflict management:
1. Competition (rivalry, competition) — resolution of the conflict by force, as the style is characterized by high personal involvement and interest in conflict resolution, but without considering the other side's position. This style of "win — lose" in interpersonal conflict. To apply this style you need to have power or physical advantages. Hakai style can in some cases help in achieving individual goals. However, in public opinion this style is not popular.
2. The style assuming care from the conflict, is connected with absence of personal persistence and desires to cooperate to resolve it. Here there is an attempt to stand aloof from the conflict, not to take responsibility for the resolution of the conflict. In this approach, the conflict both sides lose. This style leads to the disapproval of the inaction on the part of others.
3. The resolution of the conflict through cooperation. As the style is characterized by a high degree of personal involvement in and a strong desire to cooperate their efforts with others to resolve interpersonal conflict.
With this approach, both sides win.Such people are considered to be dynamic, which the other one gets a favorable impression. They correctly believe that each party to the conflict have equal rights, resolution, and point of view each has a right to exist.
4. Style device prompts to enter the position of the other side, sacrificing their own interests for the interests of the other party. The basis of this style is the desire to cooperate with others, but without entering into this cooperation its strong interest. This is the style of "don win — win", others positive, but weak.
5. The style of compromise involves moderate consideration of the interests of each party, and hence the need to make certain concessions. In General, this style is favourably assessed and is of type "noprogress — noprogress". In many situations, the style of compromise allows you to achieve a quick resolution of the conflict, especially in cases where one party has a clear advantage.
Thus, both parties are only in a situation of cooperation that satisfies the interests of both parties. However, this style is the most difficult because joint decision-making requires a desire, effort and time to resolve the conflict. This style of collaboration leads to the optimal solution. Knowledge of these styles of conflict resolution allows everyone to consciously do one or the other choice based on the specific situation.