Nature and causes of stress
Kuznetsov. Fundamentals of management
The nature of stress. Stress (from the English. stress — strain) — a state of tension that occurs in humans under the influence strong influences. Stress — a common and frequently occurring phenomenon (increased irritability or insomnia before an important event — an exam, report, etc.). In any even with a favorable psychological climate of the organization, there are situations that cause stress, for example, lack of time to complete the entire scope of work.
Anxiety and concern (stress), when the situation gets out of control. Minor stress is inevitable and harmless. That excessive stress causes problems for individuals and organizations. Hence the need to distinguish between acceptable levels of stress and excessive stress is costly and the employee and the organization: reduced efficiency and well-being of a man, and the diseases generated by stress, will shorten his life.
This is especially true for senior executives, responsibility of which is immeasurably higher than that of an ordinary employee. In this case, the stress is characterized by excessive psychological or physiological stress [2, p. 547].
To the physiological signs of stress include ulcers, hypertension, back pain, asthma and pains in heart. Psychological manifestations include irritability, loss of appetite, depression.
The causes of stress. The main cause of stress is change, innovations, the frequency of which in modern conditions dramatically increased. Any change, even positive, for example, raising the status of the employee, disrupts the balance of our environment, to maintain which we aspire.
If the Manager feels the presence of frequent stress, he should seek to eliminate factors that make stress excessive. This requires a clear understanding of the symptoms of stress.
As the Manager solves its own problems with tension, it simultaneously needs to solve similar problems of their subordinates, maximally reducing the risk factors for stress symptoms. Therefore, managers should strive to rule out sources of stress both for themselves and for their employees.
There are two groups of stressors: organizational and personal[2, p. 546 — 547].
Organizational factors. Overloading of the employee is the primary cause of stress in organizations. In this case, there is anxiety, feelings of hopelessness and material loss.
The second factor is the conflict of roles, where the employee impose contradictory requirements. Role conflicts can occur, for example, as a result of violation of the principle of unity of command. The result is a feeling of anxiety and stress.
The third factor is the uncertainty of roles. In this case, the employee was not sure what was expected of him'". Unlike role conflict, there requirements are not really contradictory, but they are evasive and uncertain.
The fourth factor is uninteresting work. Studies have shown that people having more interesting work, exhibit less anxiety and less subject to physical ailments than dealing with uninteresting work.
In addition, stress can arise from poor working conditions (temperature, insufficient lighting, excessive noise), and also because of the information of failure, incorrect balance between authority and responsibility.
Personal factors. Potential causes of stress, which can lead to lower results are many events that occur outside the organization, i.e., in the personal life of the employee. The greatest impact of the death of a spouse, divorce, illness, death of a close relative, etc.
Given the impact of stress on performance, the Manager must learn to cope with stress and to help reduce the stress levels of their employees. This can be done using the following guidelines [2 p. 547].
1. In terms of the impact of a particular work on the results of the company to develop a system of priorities in its activities.
2. Learn to say "no" when the limit is reached in the amount of work that you have to perform or insist on attributing the timing of the previously given you the job.
3. When nominating the conflicting demands of your leadership (conflict of roles) explain the inconsistency and the impossibility of their execution.
4. Every day, find time to disconnect and rest. At this time, will throw the work out of your head, relax, turn to pleasant thoughts and images.
5. Provide adequate remuneration for effective work.
This completes the consideration of the basic issues of the theory and practice of modern management as defined by the state standard for the course "management".