Task leader in the sphere of formation of the team
Management of the Company
Among the most important tasks of the Manager in sphere of formation of labor collectives should be mentioned are:
1. Search the most favorable organizational, technical and socio-economic points of view on their organizational structure;
2. The organization internally collective, economic, socio-psychological and legal relations in such a way as to ensure the convergence of individual, group, collective And public interests;
3. The construction of a system of enterprise management that in the presence of a centralized coordination of production and other processes provided real opportunities for the effective participation of individual workers and their primary associations in the management of production.
Thus, one of the main tasks of the head is the formation of an efficient labor collectives, which are able to perform their tasks. On this basis, the leader must adhere to the following rules:
• should be sufficiently clear and understandable objectives, the relevant internal interests of the people;
• to draw attention to the existence of certain benefits and achievements of working together, demonstrating its clear advantages over the individual;
• to create the necessary compatibility level - psychological, professional, intellectual, that allows its workers to cooperate and to solve problems.
• cultivate strong leadership (from official team) or to be a leader (in informal group) which people are willing to obey and which are willing to go to achieve common goals, despite the difficulties.
Each team needs to find its place in the formal or informal structure of the organization to realize its goals and potential, not preventing to do this.
If the starting point in the formation of a formal team is a decision, legally certain way, then the informal - is that a new unexpected event or achievement of a certain limit in the development of the situation, after which "we can't go on". Most often we are talking about the feeling of fear, of protest, of a desire to protect themselves (forming trade unions).
Currently, Western companies often practice a mixed way of forming groups, with the result that they are more stable and resistant than usual. The basis of this way is the choice of partners from the set of persons with whom the person is given some time to chat. As a result, in some there is a strong sympathy for others - the antipathy to third indifference.
Acceptance or rejection of other group members begins with their perception, which includes receiving and processing information. In the process of perception of man by man there are three stages: 1. Selection - selective accumulation of information that in the opinion of a certain person, has some value for evaluation;
2. Systematization - the selected information is previously examined, is necessary and the useless - discarded;
3. The interpretation is partly emotional, partly logical assessment of the available data and making a final judgment about the identity of the person, the opportunity or the possibility of cooperation with it in the future.
The person perception is affected by a number of circumstances, both objective and subjective.
Among the objective psychological features of perception of man by man are:
• a situation which is familiar;
• the level and depth of vision of the situation in which there is a perception that increases or reduces the value of the following circumstances.
• personal and social characteristics, such as tolerance, demeanor, appearance.
• personal data such as gender, age, education, religion, nationality.
a) the transfer of the evaluation of some personality characteristics on the other (beautiful people have to be smart), or the person as a whole;
b) a projection of their own feelings on others;
C) empowering others own features.
Among the subjective psychological features of perception of man by man are:
• the effect of first impressions;
• the effect of his-someone else (strangers, ceteris paribus viewed with greater sympathy than close).
The person perception is affected by quite a number of factors and therefore, people often perceived the other as she really is, and be what it wants to see, or it wants itself to show.
Likes and dislikes formed, transformirovalsya in providing benefits i.e. willingness or unwillingness to cooperate. Distinguish the advantages caused by:
• emotional reasons;
• value reasons.
Preferences allows you to select a so-called reference, or reference group of people who are attracted to the person to which it is oriented, which assesses themselves and their actions with which it wishes to operate.
This is based on the method of formation of working groups from the circle of persons, connected by a system of preferences. 33 this is done using the so-called socogetra methods. Each of the team members said people with whom he would like to work and those with whom you work, in his opinion, impossible.
Sociogram is constructed. But such methods have two dangers:
• may leak information that will have negative consequences;
• the leader may be the person that popular in the team, but unusable.
The process of formation and development of the team is quite long and includes several stages.
1. Familiarity - each demonstrating their own capabilities and also clarifies the qualities of other (selected leaders).
2. Convergence participants are established sufficiently close contact between people and shaped by shared norms of behaviour, with the result that it becomes possible collaboration.
3. Stabilization team formed a common purpose and is a reliable cooperation of people with each other, allowing to receive the guaranteed results of joint work, (at the same time, there may be different factions that pursue their own aims).
4. Consolidation allows people to work effectively, and in the case of the functioning of the team on the principles of self-government, turn to direct its activities to those more competent in the problems that can be solved at some point. Here, the team faces a "vertigo" from success, and as a result of self-satisfaction, stagnation.
5. Integration - team members acting as one based on full mutual support and group self-control, which allows the team to solve in his field of any task.
The Director must be optimized to select personnel according to age, gender and work experience. In addition, you should consider that many socio-psychological characteristics of the people dynamic and the process of joint activity and communication can change, obumbles the overall style of collective action. But such opportunities are limited, vzaimopostavki people to each other takes a long time collaboration and mutual psychological influence. Therefore, in the formation of the team should take into account the psychological compatibility of people.
Compatibility of workers is a quite complicated task. Difficulties related to the fact that there is no method of objective evaluation in humans of the qualities that were essential for establishing good interpersonal relations. In this regard, there is almost impossible to predict in advance whether a cohesive team, which is staffed with people who bad previously knew each other.
Socio-psychological selection contributes to a more favorable psychological climate, the best structure of mutual relations and qualities of the primary self-supporting groups to make their organization more manageable and provides increased social and economic efficiency.