Service personnel, their historical development, types and functions
Management of the Company
Personnel service is a set of specialized structural subdivisions in the sphere of enterprise management along with employed in them by the officials (managers, professionals, employees) that need to manage staff within a defined personnel policy.
The roots of personnel management are deeply rooted in the history of mankind. Even the first representatives of the human race, United in tribal communities, daily solved the problem using its own very limited physical and intellectual resources in the face of division of labor, labor motivation and discipline. Even in the Bible is an example of human resource management, namely: Moses, vivadelli of the Jews from Egypt to the Promised land, resolved the issues of the organization, distribution and motivation during the transition.
In the middle ages most of the organizations used the work of a very small number of people (except army). They used the same operations, personnel management was one of the activities of the head of the organization, it's often the owner who made decisions regarding their employees based on common sense and experience. At the same time, in the middle ages sprang interesting examples of professional development: Western European workshop artisans had elaborated internal hierarchy and criteria for the promotion of the employee within the hierarchy, stimulation of labor (the first plans of employee participation in profits), occupational training (craft school, apprenticeships).
The industrial revolution of the nineteenth century. radically changed the nature of economic organizations replaced the master came to the factory, used the collaboration of a significant number of people. Also significantly changed the nature of work and its conditions.
The growth of economic organizations, and the growing dissatisfaction with the working conditions of the majority of their employees forced the leaders of these organizations to hire professionals to deal exclusively with relations with the workers. From this beginning the history of the departments, which are specifically started to deal with staff problems in organizations. The first such service was established in France in 1897. These services were public, and contributed to the employment of the personnel, then such institutions appeared in England. In parallel, at the enterprises of economically developed countries, the U.S., England, France introduced the post of Secretary of welfare, public Secretary who will decide on the following issues: the unit of schools and hospitals for workers, monitor working conditions, provide resistance to creation of trade unions at the enterprise. Over time, these services begin to engage in the study and optimization of management methods and their application in the enterprise. In a crisis the 30-40-ies of officers of personnel services is responsible for negotiations with trade unions; consideration of claims of employees; representation of company's interests in the event of litigation. Given the growing attention from the state regarding the working conditions, the development and adoption of legislative bodies of a number of laws of social character, at the companies introduced the position of experts in labour law who exercise control over compliance with legislation the administration of the company and providing for interaction with public authorities.
Today, the HR departments of enterprises of economically developed countries focus their attention on the following areas of work with personnel:
• adoption of humanistic approach to managing people while enhancing their status within the organization;
• planning and career development;
• internal organizational communications;
• enrichment of labour content;
• attraction of workers to participation in management.
• ensuring compliance of the staff qualification level the requirements of modern production;
• control of labour costs;
• fundraising support and a stronger sense of involvement in the organization in conditions of territorial fragmentation of jobs;
• providing the best balance of advantages of locating production in regions with cheap labor force and employment in their own countries.
In work of personnel services of national enterprises noticed a certain specificity, they are not so independent, as is the case abroad, and doing mostly support functions.
Until 1917 in Russia, as in most developed countries, there are labour exchanges, job-population. After the revolution, in December 1918, at the base and is labor exchanges were established departments of accounting and distribution of the workforce charged with enforcing and monitoring the implementation of labor service. The end of the civil war and the return from the fronts of a significant number of demobilized soldiers, has led to increased unemployment and forced the government to create in pp 1921-1925. labour exchanges, which were designed to solve this problem. At the same time, the expansion of the network of labor exchanges, contingent features that appealed to them on issues of employment increase among the unemployed, unemployed people, people who did not have professional training, has led to the establishment of the labour exchanges, educational courses for initial vocational training of adolescents and sections with their employment. Stating in 1930 on the complete elimination of unemployment, the government adopted the decision on the reorganization of labor exchanges. These establishments began to close and reorganize in personnel management, which was obliged to provide the national economy with labour and also to plan training and to control its use. The growing centralization in government, growth rate of industrial construction in the country caused the need instead of special state bodies on human resources management, which was liquidated, and create all the enterprises and organizations of the Bureau for hiring and firing employees. This is the prototype of a modern HR service for the company, which at that time performed the functions of accounting and staffing company.
In the conditions of aggravation of the international situation associated with the onset of world war II, in 1940 the government of the former Soviet Union the decision on the prohibition of unauthorized departure from work and a procedure of compulsory transfer of 3 one enterprise to another by decision of the Commissariat, and in 1941 роЦ1 introduced labor conscription, and then the mobilization of the working population and created the Committee on accounting and distribution of the workforce of the Soviet Union.
After the great Patriotic war was created by the Ministry of human resources, which dealt with the Employment of demobilized soldiers and persons who were returning to their pre-war homes.
Long time employment only care staffing services to companies and bodies for the recruitment and distribution of labor resources for new construction to the Union's objects, any further employment of persons who are temporarily not working due to a change in the place of work, with the result that, trachilos a lot of time working, people could not quickly find a suitable job, in search of it often changed places of work, yet in the end could not find something that satisfied. In this regard, during the 1969-1970 pp. was created by the employment office and information of the population who were engaged in organized employment and acceleration of the labour movement, reduction of unnecessary changes professions.
In 1987, the country has created the State service for employment, retraining and vocational guidance of the population, which is responsible for employment of the unemployed, retraining and retraining of workers, the profession and qualification which are becoming uncompetitive on the labour market as a result of introduction of achievements of scientific-technical progress. These services also entrusted with the vocational guidance of schoolchildren.
Thus, today the country's employment problems are two parallel existing service: Public service employment and personnel departments at enterprises.
Personnel services of national enterprises independently carry out the following functions:
1) recruitment, dismissal of workers, including young specialists; placement of staff;
2) recordkeeping and reporting;
3) register shifts;
4) making pensions;
5) the issue of certificates at the request of the employee;
6) control and working time registration;
7) analysis of labor discipline, turnover;
8) certification of personnel;
9) selection of candidates for further assessment and enrollment;
10) analysis of qualitative structure of employees;
11) calculate the additional staffing needs;
12) planning and study of the movement of the frame.