Labor adaptation, its stages, prerequisites and factors contributing to it
Management of the Company
Labor adaptation is the adaptation of the worker to the conditions of the external and internal environment. In sociology and psychology there are social and industrial adaptation. They are interrelated with each other, although they have independent scope. From the point of view of personnel management, the interest is production adaptation, it is a tool in the solution of such problems as the formation of new employee performance and quality of work in a short time and at the appropriate level.
Distinguish between active adaptation, when a person seeks to influence the environment for change, and passive when she doesn't want that.
The most effective is adaptation as a process of adaptation of the individual to the changing environment by using the appropriate control action and using different means (organizational, technical, socio-psychological).
In its effects on worker distinguish the progressive results of adaptation and regressive. The latter occur in the case of passive adaptation to the environment with negative content (for example, low labour discipline).
In addition, there are primary production adaptation, when a person is first included in a permanent work for a specific company, and secondary - during the subsequent shift operation.
Production adaptation can be considered from different points of view, highlighting psycho-physiological, professional, socio-psychological side. Each of them has its object, its target, and performance indicators.
Physiological adaptation - adaptation to labor activity at the level of the body of the worker as a whole, resulting in less change its functional state (reduced fatigue, adaptation to high physical stress).
Professional adaptation - the full and successful mastering of a new profession, that is addictive, adapting to the content and nature of the labor conditions and organization.
Socio-psychological adaptation to the nearest social environment in the team, the traditions, the unwritten norms and rules of conduct in the team, to the style of the managers, to the peculiarities of interpersonal relations in the team.
In the solution of personnel problems at the enterprise is important to have all types of productive adaptation. So, during the formation of the team should take into account that the variability of workers at the workplace or the inverse measure - setreplacement of workers in the workplace are frequently the result of adaptation of the employee.
Dissatisfaction with its results leads to unnecessarily high staff turnover, increased illness, and other negative consequences, including of an economic nature.
The adaptation as a process is characterized by a specific duration, and therefore has a beginning and an end. If the beginning of adaptation can be clearly determined, its end cannot be determined, since the person is in a changing external and internal environment, which requires her constant adaptation to the conditions of employment.
From the standpoint of personnel management, the formation of labor potential, timing of adaptation is of great importance to clarify such thing as a limit to adaptation.
The dates for the adaptation of the use of certain indicators or metrics, which quantitatively evaluate the separate aspects of adaptation. These include:
0 objective measure - the level and stability of quantitative indicators of work (the systematic implementation of standards, high-quality production, the absence of irregularities in the rhythm of work, professional sustainability and growth of qualification level of labour discipline). 0 subjective indicators - level of satisfaction with their profession, working conditions, etc.
Adaptation can be managed, i.e. actively influence the factors that determine its course, the timing, reducing the impact of adverse effects, and the like.
Among the measures contributing to the reduction of the adaptation period and its negative consequences, we can distinguish the well-organized guidance and,in particular, professional selection of personnel.
Successful physiological adaptation contribute to adjust the environment to man: the improvement of working conditions, ergonomic requirements for workplace organization, reduction of fatigue of a person.
Adaptation significantly depends on the organization of vocational and qualification promotion.
An important role in human adaptation is the psychological climate in the company: business relations, sociability, mutual support - increase productivity with a positive effect on mood and the human psyche.