A study of interpersonal relations
Management of the Company
Not to be once again to emphasize the fact that no organization can function without interference between the working people and that the success of the organization depends on the quality of such interaction. Many managers in their activities faced with hostility, even aggressiveness, unhealthy rivalry, jealousy between individuals that often leads to a deterioration of labor conditions and causes significant losses to the organization.
Complex aspects of the various relationships, you can simplify all personal relationships are one of four purposes:
• formation of the social realities, in particular, the correct representation of the person about themselves;
• expression of feelings and emotional contact with others;
• influence on the behavior of others, including its measurement;
• business purpose.
There are several types of social interaction motives (i.e. motives through which a person interacts with other people):
> Maximization of the total gain (motive of cooperation);
> Maximization of self-gain (individualism);
> Maximizing relative gain (competition);
> Maximization of winning the other (altruism);
> Minimization of the winning the other (aggression);
> To minimize differences in scoring (equality).
Accordingly, the listed motives can be identify behaviour strategies in the interaction:
• Cooperation aimed at full satisfaction of the participants of the interaction to their needs (realized or the motive of the cooperation or competition).
• Opposition suggests orientation to their goals without considering the goals of the partners (individualism).
• The compromise is implemented with the partial achievement of the objectives of partners for a conditional equality.
• Flexibility involves sacrifice their own goals to achieve the objectives of the partner (altruism).
• Avoidance is an escape from contact, loss of own goals to the exclusion of another win
In social psychology there are three types of between personal communication:
Imperative communication is authoritarian-Directive form of interaction with the partner in communication to achieve control over his behavior, attitudes, thoughts, of compelling them to perform certain actions or making certain decisions. In this case, the partner acts as a passive side, and the main feature of such communication is that the coercion of a partner, not a veiled. Examples of such relations are: military the statutory relationship, of the relationship "Manager-subordinate" in extreme situations.
Manipulative communication is a form of interpersonal relations in which the effect on partner communication, with the aim of achieving its intentions is hidden. Like mandatory communication, manipulation involves the desire to achieve control over the behavior and thoughts of another person. The scope of application of this type of communication is business, business relationship at all. A symbol of this type of communication was the concept of communication, developed by Dale Carnegie and his followers. Widespread manipulative style of communication and advocacy.
A characteristic feature of this type of communication is that the person is not perceived as a whole unique personality, and as a carrier of the desired qualities. But the person who posits this type of communication eventually becomes a victim of his own manipulations.
Combining imperative and manipulative form of communication can be described as monologic communication. Someone who regards the other as the object of his influences, communicates himself with their goals, objectives, ignoring the interlocutor.
Humanistic dialogical communication is equal dialogue, interaction, with the aim of mutual learning, self-knowledge of partners. It is possible only at observance of several rules of relationship:
• Presence of psychological attitude on the state of the interlocutor, and your own psychological state.
• The use of unbiased perception of the partner's identity, a priori setting on the credibility of its intentions.
• The perception of the partner as an equal, entitled to their own opinion and decision.
• The content of the communication should include the problems and unresolved issues.
• You should personalize the communication, i.e. to talk on its behalf (without reference to the opinion of the authorities), to show their true feelings and desires.
Dialogic (humanistic) communication allows to reach a deeper understanding, of self-disclosure of partners that creates the conditions for mutual personal growth.