Voluntary associations of enterprises and their characteristic features
Management of the Company
In terms of market relations in the country, the dynamic development of the global market, increased competition there is an urgent need for the entry of enterprises (companies) in various associations.
According to the law "On Enterprises in Ukraine" All companies are entitled to voluntarily unite the industrial, scientific, commercial, financial and other activities, if it does not contradict antimonopoly legislation of Ukraine.
Association is a legal entity can be independent and consolidated balance sheets, settlement and other bank accounts, a seal with its name.
The desire to find a balance between the benefits of centralization and decentralization and responsibility in a business combination (firms) leads to the choice of organizational forms of integration, as if holding an intermediate position between centralized corporate structure and cooperation in purely market environment.
Organizational forms of association of enterprises (firms, companies) that are significantly different in the degree of integration of the participants developed historically from corporations and family groups at the beginning of the century to strategic alliances in the late XX century.
Characteristically, the organizational forms that have emerged now, no integration tisnyayut types of companies that have been before, and even supplement them.
As a result of the expansion carried out various forms.
The nature of the relationships between enterprises (companies) is becoming more complex and very delicate, given the possibility of cooperative integrated structures.
In Ukraine, the voluntary associations of independent businesses have been actively developed recently, but in the world have developed different types of integration enterprises (firms), which differ depending on the purpose of cooperation, the nature of economic relations between their members, the degree of autonomy of enterprises belonging to the object ' union: this association, corporations, consortiums, concerns, cartels, syndicates, holdings, financial and industrial groups, franchising, trusts, pools, conglomerates strategic alliances, offshore companies
1. Association (from the Latin. Associatio - communication, connection).
Association - is one of the most common forms of contracting entities associations of enterprises (firms, companies) to permanent coordination of economic (commercial) activities.
The Association has no right to interfere in the production and commercial activities of any of its participants (members). In Ukraine, for example, successfully operating Ukrainian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, which has more than 17,000 members and almost all regions has branches. The main goal of this alliance is to promote the protection of interests
2. Corporation (from the Latin. Corporatio - union).
The Corporation is a contractual union set up on! based on a combination of industrial, scientific, and commercial interests of: delegating certain powers of the centralized regulation of activity of each participant.
Feature of corporations is that their capital is formed in cash and divided into equal in nominal value of the shares in the form of shares. This is different from business partnerships.
The Corporation is now the dominant form of business activity. Its owners are considered shareholders with unlimited liability in the amount of its contribution to the share capital of the corporation.
In addition, corporate feature is that all profit corporation owned by its shareholders. There are two parts of it. One part is distributed to shareholders as dividends, the second - it's undistributed profits used for reinvestment. Ownership and control functions are divided between shareholders (shareholders) and managers.
3. Consortium (from the Latin. Consortium - participation, community).
Consortium - a temporary alliance of independent commercial enterprises (firms, companies). The purpose of the consortium is to unite efforts to implement a specific project, often in its core business, the implementation of science - and capital-intensive projects, including international or joint conduct of major financial transactions on placement of loans, shares and so on.
The feature of consortia is that:
• organization of the consortium agreement is made;
• organizational - legal form of the consortium as a legal entity may be a corporation or other business partnerships;
• generally within the consortium participants not formed any organizational structures, except for a small device (for example, the board of directors of the consortium);
• Enterprise (company, firm), members of the consortium retain their economic and legal independence, except for that part of the activities related to the achievement of the objectives of the consortium;
• consortia are often non-profit organizations;
• enterprises (companies, firms) can simultaneously be a member of several consortia, ie to participate in several projects.
When closed, the consortium company (the company) founder contracts with each participant individually. When creating a