The general concept of their types and evolution
Management of the Company
System (Eng. Sustem) - a set of internally organized regularly arranged and interconnected set of elements that form a whole and act together to achieve a certain goal.
The term "system" covers a very wide range of concepts. For example, there are mountain ranges, river systems and solar system as part of our physical environment. Man, his body itself is a complex organism, including skeletal circulatory system and nervous system. We meet every day with the systems of transport and communications (telephone, telegraph, etc.) and socio-economic systems (enterprise).
Science is often seen as a systematic knowledge base as a full set of basic principles and facts that have ordered and dependence and relationships; as a set of ideas, principles and laws that create a whole.
Scientists are trying to develop, organize and classify material in a number of disciplines that have internal relationships. Isaac Newton called the "world system" that it investigated. Another is the political system and system technologies. Two well-known works (Darwin's "Origin of Species" and Keynes' General Theory of Employment, interest and money ") was an attempt to tie into a whole wide variety of material. Darwin's theory of evolution all living together in a "system of nature" and showed the relationship alive myriad subsystems with each other. English economist Keynes in his General Theory of Employment, interest and money considered in conjunction lot of man-natural forces acting in the economy. Both scientists, understanding complex phenomena and the relationship uniting them in a systematic whole, made a big impact on people's views. The word "system" has a meaning as a plan, method, order, order. It is not surprising that this term has acquired a distribution among scientists.
The concept of "systematic" contrary to the concept of chaotic, the situation can be called such, where "it all depends on the other as the two main objectives of science and research in any field is explanation and prediction, such a state of verticals So today there are various reasons for the development of the Ob ' combine in a complex whole; or of its themes are interrelated.
You can obviously imagine some hierarchy of large systems (or supersystems). This hierarchy includes systems consisting i3 such systems, which in turn contain system. Thus, the universe is a system of celestial bodies, which includes many subsystems star, called galaxies. Inside one such galaxy, the Milky Way, the solar system is one of many planetary systems. Similarly, the body is a system of interconnected bodies, each of which comprises many subsystems. The human body is composed of cells that create much larger systems that are subsystems of the organism as a whole.
The most important feature of general systems theory is that it distinguishes between closed and open system. An example of an open system is the human body, which is not only a conglomeration of individual elements, but a system that has the features of (the company) and integrity.
The body, which is an open system that supports their condition unchanged, while the matter coming to him, and energy changes (so-called state of "dynamic" equilibrium). Under the influence of the environment itself has influenced him, the body becomes state of dynamic equilibrium in the existing environment. This idea of a system exactly corresponds to the typical business organization (enterprise). This organization (company) is a man created a system that dynamically interacts with its environment - customers, competitors, suppliers, trade unions and other organizations. In addition, the business organization (company) can be viewed as a system of interrelated parts functioning together to achieve the goals of the entire organization (enterprise) and its individual parts.
Sometimes researchers concerned with the management, trying to describe the organization as a machine that operates in once and set mode. This corresponds to the second level of the hierarchy of general systems theory Bouldynha, that the level of "Time of the mechanism." This organization (enterprise) deals exclusively with mechanistic point of view, they are attributed and behavior provided similarly analyzed their various resursy- materials, equipment, personnel and so on.
As another general analogy can give a comparison of (the company) with the human body, with a skeleton and muscle actuators and circulation acts as a service. The nervous system responds communication system. The brain represents the top management of the company (the company) and is a structure "which samorehulyuyetsya, with quality playback.
This approach draws prototype framework that would be useful for the theory of entrepreneurship - the areas studied as a system consisting of systems, and where the focus is mainly on the nodal points of the structure of the organization, which serves to decision making, rational for individual parts and the entire organization (enterprise) as a whole.
fundamental discovery that is the basis of all science of management - a company filing system as the highest order of complexity of the system, part of which is people.
Any real system, mechanical, biological or human, is always characterized by interdependence. The whole system is not necessarily improved if a part of its function or improved, becoming more efficient. The effect can be reversed: the system can be seriously damaged or even destroyed. In any system important work of the whole: the result of growth and dynamic balance, adaptation and integration, and not simply technical efficiency.
The main drawback of the same approaches of different scientific schools
the management is that they have focused attention
only one any element not considered
management efficiency as productive, dependent on many
factors. This is the fundamental difference between the modern system
approach to management. The first idea of the system arose in
ancient philosophy that the interpretation put forward the idea of a
Orderliness and integrity of life (Euclid, Plato). systems theory
was first used in the exact sciences and technology. Apply it in
Office in the late 50s convincingly proved that any
Organization (company) is an open system that depends on the outside world.
Under conditions for studying phenomena and processes in any systems including enterprise, widely used idea is based on systems theory and it involves any object as a whole in the totality of forming parts (elements). For example, if a local approach examines the structure and functional properties of autonomous, individual elements of the system, a systematic approach always involves consideration of each object as a system that consists of regularly arranged and interacting components and subsystems that are always relationships with the outside environment, actively influencing it and dependent on it.
The systems approach involves the study of the most common
forms of organization of the system, the interaction between them, the processes associated with its system of targets and the environment.
Despite the fact that domestic and foreign experts of modern management consider a systematic approach to enterprise management one of the most effective, along with this should be borne in mind that it is not set any permanent rules that have guided managers, and is a common way thinking and approach to organization and management systems and their subsystems.
In the definition of the system is necessary to consider closely "its relationship with the concepts of integrity, structure and connection elements, relationships, and other subsystems. Since the concept of the system is very broad in scope (almost every object can bottle, considered as a system) since it provides a fairly complete understanding of the relevant definitions family building - both semantic and formal.
An important feature of most living systems, especially DPO "is the transfer of their information and availability processes. The most difficult types of systems are purposeful behavior which is subject to achieving specified
system, and self-organizing systems that are able to modify the operation of the structure.
For many living systems characterized by the presence of different it is often not coordinated goals. An important aspect of the disclosure meaning of the system is the selection of different types of systems.
You can select and abstract material systems, simple and complex, open and closed, and others.
Abstract system is a product of the human mind; they can also be divided into many different types of (specific system are the concepts, hypotheses, theories, a succession of scientific theories, etc.). Among the systems are abstract and scientific knowledge about the different types of systems as they are formulated in general systems theory, specific theories. The material in turn divided into a system of inorganic nature (physical, geological, chemical, etc.) And living systems, which include both the simplest biological systems and biological objects are very complex type of organism, species, ecosystems.
A special class of material living systems create social systems are extremely diverse in their types and forms (ranging from simple social associations and the socio-economic structure of society).
The assignment of a system to a simple or complex
depending on its complexity, a set of interrelated goals number
activities and elements interconnected with each other
(Objects), scope of work, level of branching structures and so on.
The main features of simple systems is the limited number of activities, narrow set of interrelated objectives, a small number of interrelated interacting elements) unbranched structure and small volume of work performed
Complex systems have a large number of interrelated activities and objectives, widely branched structure and a large number of interrelated and interacting elements (objects) that fulfill large volumes of work
Examples of complex systems in non-production sphere can be authorized domestic stock trading partnerships such "department store", "supermarket".
Keep in mind that increasing the number of items that those on the composition of the system causes the growth of its activity and
Includes internal communications.
Depending on the internal construction, composition, value and character shouts of interaction with the environment systems are divided into open and closed (closed)
The main features of open systems is that they actively interact with the environment, are constantly under its influence and carry themselves influenced him, using a variety of means. Energy, information, materials, materials3 capital - are objects of exchange with the environment through the open border system. Such a system can not itself ensure it is fully dependent on energy, information, raw materials, capital coming from the environment. In this condition the viability of the system is beneficial exchange system with the environment. In addition, the open system has the ability to adapt to changes in the environment and must do everything in order to continue to function.
The leaders mainly engaged in open systems, so that all businesses are open socio-economic systems.
The survival of any enterprise depends on external
world. Closed systems are relatively independent of external
environment that surrounds and have certain fixed limits in conjunction with it.
An example of a closed system may be a clock that operates independently from the environment until it is wound up or other energy source (battery).