Enterprise as an open system
Management of the Company
Based on the position of system methodology, companies are open socio-economic systems.
Enterprise as a socio-economic system is isolated due to social division of labor of industrial or commercial process capable on their own or in conjunction with other systems to meet certain needs of potential customers using this system to develop products or services. The emergence of a socio-economic system (enterprise) due to the occurrence or formation of market demand for products and services that can meet the requirements of consumers.
Describe the process of the enterprise as an open socioeconomic system can be so. At the first stage of the life cycle (the birth of) the company receives from the environment and financial and human resources, information, materials, raw materials, etc. These components are called "inputs". In the process of these "inputs" turn into products, services, new information. They are the outputs of the company, ie the result of the system. If the organization management is effective, the process of transforming inputs produced surplus value, through which the company created opportunities to increase production, sales of goods and services, income, improve the culture of customer service, properly stimulate the work of staff and on this basis to improve and performance conquer new markets for goods and services to develop their physical infrastructure and so on. Chart displaying the company as an open system shown in Fig. 34.
Enterprises as open socio-economic systems have the following main characteristics that distinguish them from technical and other:
1) adaptability, ie the ability to adapt to the environment changing;
2) the ability and desire formation of goals within the system;
3) the ability entropy opposed tendencies;
4) the ability to change its structure to shape behaviors depending on exposure conditions and situations that are in the process of achieving pevy1 "purposes;
5) neperedbachenist uniqueness and behavior of the system in different conditions because its main element is the most active people;
6) transience, that individual variability parameter stahostychnist her behavior;
7) durability (ability for long periods to keep performance and fulfill its mission;
8) openness, manifested not only in the ballroom, energy metabolism, but also to exchange information; commitment, reflected by their ability to provide 9) 0zhyvachiv necessary goods and services;
10) limitations, considered limiting the opportunities available identified in dogs;
11) polistrukturnist, resulting in the existence of these vzayemoperepletenyh subsystems, where each element of the system is simultaneously several subsystems and functions according to their requirements;
12) handling, resulting admissibility of the functioning of temporary changes in the desired direction under the influence of management actions. Manageability is provided as internal reserves and dismemberment system on a relative.
The process of the enterprise as an open system
The existence and functioning of both open systems due to the following basic laws: 1) integrity (nezvedenist fundamental qualities of the system and its elements nevyvodymist jj latter qualities a); 2) integrative (determines the degree of privacy and only system on the environment, as such, the number of functional communications system environment, and 3) communicative (define common elements of the exchange of information internal and external environment, systems) 4) hierarchical (defines the parts or whole items in order from highest to lowest. The hierarchy is characterized by an equal number which is greater, the greater the system); 5) complexity (due to its elements: the staff, the means of labor commitment, polistrukturnistyu, openness, alternative connections, etc.).
Knowledge of the basic laws of existence and fukktsionuvannya enterprises as open systems, helps to define the guiding influence of each of them in the process of, operative to form goals and objectives to respond to changing environmental factors determine the order of organization and management of the system.
Enterprise operates as an open system based on the interaction of the elements of which it is composed.
Element - a self-isolated part of the system Mat perform the appropriate function to achieve the overall goals of the system.
In open systems enterprises as such elements are nepodilnymi personnel, vehicles, equipment, information, finance those others.
Increasing the number of elements that make up! enterprise as open systems, causes growth of the complexity of internal connections in it.
Elements of the company as an open system connected E "a network of causation. How a handicap interaction is a prerequisite of the system. Rebuilding ties within the system makes changing its properties. Elements of the system are closely linked to clearly defined order.
It shows that the system as defined integrity must subordinate their properties and effects of the constituent elements to achieve common goals. Internal company organized as an open system is determined by its structure, ie a set of interrelated and interacting elements.
To achieve the overall objectives of the enterprise as open systems and between its elements constantly supported by the information forward and backward linkages.
Some elements of the company together as an open system functioning relatively independently and with minimal number of connections with other parts functioning independently represent subsystems.
For example, subsystem in a large commercial enterprise is its structural units (departments economics, marketing, technology, personnel, etc.). Links open enterprise as: systems combine elements of the system in the process. As the relationships between elements and subsystems company changed under the influence of internal and external factors, the company applies $ dynamical systems.
Connections are real (the channels through which the elements of the system as a whole exchanged between substances), energy (exchange channels of various types of mechanical, thermal and other energy) and information (information about the state of the environment and others.
Based on the principles of systemic approach can provide every company as an open system in the unity of two subsystems: the subsystem that controls (control) subsystem and run by (guided).
Control systems (subject) is a person in the company (manager) or body (device management), which has managed to influence management subsystem (object) management.
By controlled subsystem (object) management related subject process, a phenomenon which aims managerial influence.
The company managed to subsystem (facilities) include management jobs, departments, teams, departments, sections, production, trade, technological and other processes at the center of the worker or the labor collective.
The control system (subject) and management subsystem which object) is always interconnected, enterprise interaction management system as its environment (suppliers of products and services, competitors, public authorities and others.).
transfer system run by a new state or to reject its constituent elements of the set and fixing the overall objectives of the system should be determined using reach meaningful impact on the basic elements of methods.
The control system is based on what a company which is average or small) has several levels of government on pidpolkovanosti. For example in large joint-stock enterprises universal non-production sectors (particularly trade) there are four levels of management: managers commodity divisions (sections) and deputy managers of functional departments of management personnel and deputy chairman of the board and its general meeting of shareholders.
In order to perform tasks before and now achieve defined objectives through the management system of targeting subsystems managed by economic, institutional and socio-psychological method "provides a process of production, trade and other activities in order to achieve the set goals of the system.
The control system must meet the following requirements 1) divisibility; 2) subordination; 3) the multiplicity; 4) dynamic 5) the presence of feedback; 6) polikryterialnist; 7) a clear statement of objectives; 8) general objectives; 9) partial tasks.
Severability - a division of the system at a level managers who find ^ each other in certain respects.
Subordination - involves the subordination of the lower to the higher ones.
Plurality - involves difference behavior or condition of specific topics or behavior of the system as a whole, mobility - the ability to take management
conduct the entire system to a new position or state. Patency feedback - enables continuous monitoring of the operation of individual subsystems and systems in
Overall triolnist - the presence of each subsystem its effectiveness. For example, the marketing department is a quick search of commodity resources relevant treaties and timely delivery of goods to their sales department for organization - operational sales organization.
A clear statement of objectives - involves determining general (strategic) and partial (tactical, short-term) problems facing this system of governance.
Common tasks - a translation of the entire system in optimal condition is permanent approaching it to the top, possible at the moment, the boundaries of the development.
Partial task - the task of maintaining controlled subsystem in a state of dynamic development (stability, strength, etc.) under the influence of an environment that is constantly changing.
For example, if the delay in delivery of goods trading company, to be found a solution that will not allow its closure.