The construction of organizational structures of enterprise management
Management of the Company
The construction of organizational structures of enterprise management and organization of works for their improvement involves the use of appropriate methods.
The choice of method of development of organizational structures depends on certain factors - the skill level of developers, tasks, organizational design etc.
In modern conditions of development of progressive information technologies, operational lighting best management experience of domestic and foreign businesses, the most widely methods of analogies and comparisons and the method of expert evaluations. More effective methods, for example, organizational modeling, until recently was not used.
The formation of organizational structures of enterprise management is usually divided into three successive stages of organizational design - analytical (the study of the structure, improved); design (development of the project of the new structure) and organizational (implementation).
Design work on formation of organizational structure of management are:
• determining task of designing or improving it;
• the choice of design methods;
• selecting the type of organizational structure of management;
• determination of parameters (the number of management layers and the number of employees that are subject to a particular Manager);
• the number of structural subdivisions of the management apparatus;
• determination of functional relationships between departments;
• development of provisions on departments;
• develop job descriptions of employees.
The initial information for building the organizational structure of management of any enterprise is the total number of personnel (staffing) and its structure, which is approved by the owner (owners) of the company (the highest management bodies), unless otherwise stipulated by the constituent documents, and recorded in the staffing table.
The organizational structure of enterprise management is assigned in the organizational charts (organigrama) and developed the provisions on structural divisions (departments, services).
Development of provisions about divisions (departments, services) is carried out by their managers and approved by order of the owner (head) of the enterprise. In terms of units must be the following information: the name of the unit, its place in the system of enterprise management, the purpose, objectives, who is subject to the division, the order of appointment (liberation) of the unit Manager the structure of the unit and the nature of its relationships with other departments (services), rights, responsibilities of departments, reorganization, liquidation, etc.
On the basis of the provisions on structural subdivisions, job characteristics of the professionals developed their job descriptions. Job descriptions shall be developed by the head of the enterprise (managers of departments) and approved by order of the Director. Job description includes the following information: 1) the qualification requirements for knowledge and skills of the specialist, level of education, experience, its subordination, appointment, and dismissal; 2) a clear, detailed list of functions; 3) fundamentals of interaction of the expert with other departments (specialists); 4) clearly defined rights and responsibilities; 5) assessment activities and incentives (clearly defined criteria for the evaluation of the implementation of employee duties, forms of stimulation and the parameters from which they depend, in particular the achievement of a specific result of the implementation of the established volume of work, saving of resources, initiative, timeliness, correctness, etc.
Properly, the regulations on subdivisions and job descriptions of specialists ensure the unification of management personnel into a single team to achieve the goals of the enterprise, enhance the efficiency of work of personnel, strengthening of all types of discipline, and timely adoption and implementation of administrative decisions, avoidance of production of destructive conflicts on the basis of division of labor in the administration etc.
Management and organizational structure has few levels of management depending on the type of enterprise and its size, scope, and the like. For example, large versatile open joint enterprises in service sector (trade) we can distinguish four organizational levels. Schematically, a hierarchy of levels of enterprise Management is shown in Fig. 77.
Fig. 77. Organizational levels of management of large open joint stock company "Department Store"
At each organizational level are the governments and relevant managers (managers), who perform certain management functions. For example, to the highest organizational level of management of a large public company in the manufacturing sector (the trade) include the following governing bodies: the General meeting of shareholders (Supreme governing body); the Board (Executive management body), the Supervisory Board and audit Commission, are established and operate under the legislation of Ukraine. The current legislation also defined by their main functions and rights. Thus, in particular, the competence of the General shareholders meeting has the approval of the Charter of the company, its objectives, strategic goals, and the like.
The Board of Directors, as Executive body, ensures the effective organization of the current activity of the enterprise, carries out the decisions of the shareholders ' meeting, Supervisory Council, audit Committee; organizes active cooperation of managers and specialists of middle and lower management units and monitors the performance of all service tasks and the achievement of overall business objectives, provide backward and forward linkages with the external environment of the enterprise (local government authorities, tax services, media, services, consumer protection, producers of goods and raw materials, competitors, etc.).
The Supervisory Board oversees the activities of the Executive body (the management Board) and provides for implementation of the most important decisions of the General meeting of shareholders and the like.
The audit Commission on behalf of the General meeting and the Supervisory Board shall audit financial and economic activities of the enterprise periodically reports to the General meeting of shareholders on the results of audits and makes proposals for the adoption of appropriate measures aimed at improvement of the company operations and the like.
Higher authorities of company management and supervisors, generally do not participate directly in the manufacture of products and implementation or the provision of services to consumers, but their activity has a big impact on the overall efficiency and the achievement of its objectives.
Regarding the functions of managers of functional departments (services) of the enterprise and their deputies (Department managers are economy, technology, automation, marketing, personnel, accounting and auditing, etc.), they provide a developed bodies and senior institutional management level strategy and performance goals; organize the implementation of the proposals and appropriate decisions regarding effective management; develop production current challenges and bring them to the lower divisions (product divisions (sections), provide them with practical assistance in their implementation and carry out continuous monitoring of their implementation; provide necessary information to the bodies and heads of higher organisational level on the status of current tasks and common goals, activities; taking operational decisions within its competence etc.
Managers of commodity departments (sections) and their deputies (for example in large commercial enterprises) are directly involved in production processes, ensure control over the implementation of industrial, commercial and other economic problems, are responsible for the rational use of their resources, the quality of service consumers, providing services, etc.
On the organizational levels of management in small and medium-sized enterprises, there may be two or three levels. For example, in small collective enterprises of retail trade, we can distinguish only two levels: enterprise Manager —> General meeting of labor collective. In medium-sized collective enterprises in three levels: head (Manager) of the unit -> the head of the company the General meeting of labor collective.
It should be borne in mind that all organizational levels of management in any enterprise actively interact with each other. their interaction is subject to a single goal or set of goals of an organization.