The main factors influencing the formation of organizational structures of management
Management of the Company
On the formation of organizational structure is affected by a number of factors, different in nature and impact the structure. There are the following main factors: 1) directly affect the governance structure; 2) factors whose influence is manifested indirectly (indirect effect)', 3) factors that determine the structure, and the factors which influence the structure, but in General are themselves determined by it; 4) factors associated with a managing system and managed by the control subsystem; 5) factors, which in relation to the management structure are "external" factors and "internal".
As a direct influence on the structure of the factors are the elements of the control mechanism: 1) goals', 2) principles', 3) methods.
Direct impact on the organizational structure implement the requirements of market relations and the system of goals of management. The system of goals of enterprise management are the basis for the allocation in the structure of independent management units, which are responsible for the achievement of a specific goal. For example, in the company of non-productive sphere (Department store, supermarket) increasing the proportion of the is growth high rate of turnover, the continuous expansion of the assortment of sold goods and services to consumers, the conquest of new markets; intensive introduction of computerization for forecasting demand, reporting and analysis of commodity flows, income and expenses, and the like. According to these goals, increase organizational and allocated the necessary structural units such as marketing Department, Department of control system etc.
When you build a management structure is of particular importance not only to the question of how to divide the activities of employees on the horizontal, that is, to determine what tasks must address each structural unit.
The second important point of building a company - this division works vertically. To decide which level of the hierarchical structure should be adopted very important decisions, is the case senior management of the enterprise (company Director and his deputies, and the like). This determines the form of the organizational structure and the effectiveness of management decisions.
The main factors that directly affect the structure, management functions, their composition, contents and volume. The development of functions of management and explains the causes development of the governance structure. The management structure also directly affected the scale and complexity of the production, sale of goods, provision of services to consumers; the volume and structure of production; trade; technology, which is used for the production and sale of products, the rate of renewal of production, introduction of innovations; degree of concentration, specialization and cooperation of production, trade; the size and territorial location of enterprises, their branches, etc.
Significantly affect the structure of the level of specialization.
So, with the development and deepening of specialization reduces the number of production (non-production) units of the company, simplify its structure. On the contrary, the more universal is the company, the more complicated its structure. For example, in open joint-stock trading companies such as "Department", generates up to 10 or more units, while in a narrowly-specialized trade such as "Bread", "Dairy", "Vegetables" their number does not exceed 1-2.
Management structure of the enterprise depends on its location.
For example, for a large universal trade enterprises with sales area of over 3500 m2, located in large cities and have branches, a characteristic branching structure.
Along with the factors that act on the structure directly, it should be noted the factors influencing the structure more indirectly (indirect factors).
This group of factors include: 1) management personnel; 2) equipment; 3) technology management 4) labor organization.
These factors, though, affect the structure formation, but in General are themselves determined by it. For example, the management staff acts on the structure in terms of its refinement, correction, some redistribution of functions between structures And individual employees. But it is the corrective factors, since basically it was the management structure defines the composition of positions and requirements to quality personnel.
The introduction of new techniques to implement ASU and arm, affects the governance structure in terms of the emergence of new divisions (information services and reduction of staff individual departments (e.g., accountants, economists). But this factor is not determinative, as these innovations occur within the existing structures.
The rationality of organizational structure is determined by the optimal combination of content and number of internal and external relations of the managed system.
Advantageously, the internal communication of the managed subsystem prevailed over external, otherwise the latter will have a negative impact on the stability of the driven subsystem.
Assignments for the self - control questions to section 1 (see EXT. 10).