The contents of the process management of the company
Management of the Company
Process (from. lat. Processus - advancement).
In a broader sense, the management process is a set of continuous, interrelated and of sequential actions, which are performed by the staff management system, when exercising its functions to achieve the goals of the company.
Process management is a management system of the company by targeting its managed subsystem.
Means of influence on the controlled subsystem methods are: economic, organizational-administrative and socially-psychological.
In the conditions of market economy the main methods of impact on the controlled system is the economic means:
1. Economic (commercial) calculation;
5. Regulation of prices;
6. Material incentives and so on.
Using the economic methods creates a stable mechanism of economic interest of the staff in the final results of production, trading and other activities.
Economic methods characterized by effective direct influence on the economic (material) interests of both the individual employee and the entire workforce.
Organizational and administrative methods to provide support organizing and high labour discipline, without which it is practically impossible to effective management The main organizational and administrative methods used in the management of the company, include: 1) the charters of the companies and provisions on subdivisions; 2) standards (standardization of optimum inventory to ensure uninterrupted customer service and fulfillment of planned volumes of sales of goods, regulation of costs of labour to perform certain operations and types of work that includes the development and use of the enterprise system of labor standards, which includes standards in personnel, time norms, production norms, norms of service, etc.; 3) instructing workers on rational functions; 4) prescriptions, orders and instructions on the operational execution and coordination of tasks for smooth execution of works and compliance with certain regulations (health, safety, sale of goods, etc.).
For organizational and administrative methods characteristic is that they are based on the belief of employees and the coercion, if the first was ineffective.
Socio-psychological methods of influence on the managed subsystem include: 1) moral incentives; 2) social development planning of the team; 3) education of workers; 4) social Regulation activities; 5) promotion and support of the collective progressive interests, needs, rituals, and culture; 6) transparency and social justice.
Characterm for socio-psychological methods is that they щ0 maintain and develop the employees a desire for self-expression, independence, recognition of ability, merit, creativity and individual uniqueness.
It should be borne in mind that in the process of management management functions (planning, organizing, motivating and control) act as form, and methods of management as the content of his process. Between them, there is also the dialectical relationship between form and content.
Process of enterprise management is considered from different points of view:
- with the content, analyzing the content and sequence of specific actions at each stage of the management process;
- information analyzing processing, transmission and storage of information, which are implemented in the control system.
But when analysing the process of management from any point of view, it should be borne in mind that it is cyclical in nature.
Process management in a company starts at the first stage of its life cycle (birth), since the establishment of the relationships between the management system and the managed subsystem with information and ends after the disappearance (cessation) of these relations.
With a meaningful point of view in the process of enterprise management allocate following stages :
- organization of interaction and authority;
1. Planning (from lat. planum level place, plane) is a type of managerial labour processes with the definition of business objectives, sequence, timing and ways to achieve them. It covers all levels and functions of the office enterprise.
The necessity of planning for two reasons: 1) the duration of existence of the enterprise; 2) a constant uncertainty of the future due to changes in the environment.
2. Organization of interaction is the process of creating the organizational structure of enterprise management, which is the material basis of the management system and should change depending on the selected strategy for the prospect. Organization of interaction allows the staff of the enterprise effectively and to work together to achieve certain goals.
The organization assumes formation of the management system and its bodies, units of management, including the allocation between them of the functions, rights and responsibilities, the relationship between the elements of the managing and managed subsystems.
The authority is a limited right to use the resources of the enterprise and to direct the efforts of his employees to perform certain tasks. The powers of the delegate positions, and not to the individual.
The organization of the interaction and powers are based on the relationship of authority that bind the highest levels with low levels of working and enable distribution and coordination of tasks.
The means by which the leadership establishes relations between levels of authority is delegation.
Delegation is the transfer of tasks and responsibilities the person who accepts responsibility for their performance; it is the means by which the user distributes among the employees duties (tasks) that must be met to achieve the objectives of the enterprise.
Responsibility is the obligation to perform tasks and be responsible for their satisfactory solution. Responsibility and authority lay in the statutes, regulations about structural subdivisions and job descriptions of staff.
3. Motivation (Franz. Motif, from lat. moveo - move) is the process of encouraging yourself and others in the activities to achieve the Goals of the company.
Excluding the company's management is the driving force that determines the behavior, developed goals, objectives remain unfulfilled. Therefore, after the development of goals, objectives and organizing the joint work of staff of the enterprise, it is also necessary to properly stimulate it, to take into account the comprehensive needs of people and their relation to the different values.
Motivation is based on two categories:
- needs (physiological or psychological sense of lack of something)
- remuneration (that's what the person considers valuable to itself).
Needs are of primary (physiological) and secondary (psychological) and rewards - internal (gives the work itself: the content of the labor process, self-esteem, etc.) and external (the company provides: salary, career, company car, office, extra leave, etc.).
At the present stage one of the most important forms of motivation in companies is financial incentives, which is the process of formation and use of the system of material incentives of labor and the distribution of wages in accordance with the quantity and quality of work performed.
4. Control (FR. Controle, from contrerole - double list) is a kind of management activities to ensure process verification, registration, monitoring the activities of the company to timely identify problems and take appropriate measures.
In the process of monitoring achieved is measured for a certain period of time the results actually achieved are compared with the planned, adjusted outcome measures.
The main objective of monitoring is to ensure achievement of the goals and mission of the enterprise.
At the enterprise there are three types of control:
- pre, which is carried out prior to the actual operation of the enterprise when planning the volumes of production, trade, and other activities and create organizational governance structure.
In enterprises pre-control is used in three key areas - labour, material and financial resources.
Current control carried out directly in the process of enterprise activity. Most often it is the members of labor collective of the enterprise and the results of production, trading and other activities. For ongoing monitoring of the management system of the company needs feedback from the controlled subsystem, which is carried out through information on the progress of specific tasks and problems encountered in achieving the goals of the company.
Final inspection is carried out after the completion of the work. At this stage, the control compares the actual results of the company with the desired. This gives you the opportunity to better assess the results of the company, to identify reserves for improvement of its operation and use in the future.
From the information point of view, the process of enterprise management is a sequential implementation of the following actions: 1) gathering initial information about the problem; 2) registration, transfer and storage on information carriers; 3) processing of primary information and its presentation in the form of the document; 4) provide the processed information to the management system. If the control system finds that the information is sufficient for decision-making, there is a transition to step (5), otherwise, collect additional primary information, its registration, processing and presentation control system novatime information; 5) adoption of the management system management decisions; 6) documentation of the decision; 7) bringing solutions to contractors; 8) summarizing the execution of the decision
Only after that specialists of the management system to take certain actions, which leads to a state change of the management or the managed system and update primary information.
Each of the stages of the management process, shown in Fig. 85, can be decomposed in various operations and procedures.