Management of trading process in retail network and its content
Management of the Company
Any commercial enterprise operating in the field of commodity circulation, performs a wide range of different processes and operations.
Technological processes connected with movement of goods as consumer of cost and are a continuation of the production process in the sphere of circulation (transportation, unloading, receiving, stacking, storing, packing, packing, unpacking, Podcoritov, etc.).
Commercial processes include processes associated with the change of forms of value, i.e. buying and selling goods. Thus, in commercial processes in enterprises of trade, and are such trading processes, which ensure the existence of transactions of purchase and sale of goods (study and demand forecasting and market, determine the demand for products and services, the study of sources of goods, conclusion of contracts (agreements) for the supply of goods, advertising of goods and services sale of goods directly to consumers and the provision of additional services).
Management of trading-technological process at the enterprise trade involves the sequential execution of its personnel in certain operations with respect to: 1) study and demand forecasting and market; 2) identifying the needs for goods and services; 3) investigation of sources of goods (manufacturers or their intermediaries); 4) conclusion of contracts (agreements) for the supply of goods; 5) advertising of goods and services; 6) transportation (delivery) of goods; 7) unloading of the external transport; 8) acceptance of goods by quantity and quality; 9) the movement of goods in a place of preparation for the sale (or short-term storage); 10) transfer the prepared goods to sell in their implementation; 11) display of goods on the equipment; 12) familiarise the customers with the goods and services provided; 13) advice buyers of goods and services; 14) the choice and selection of goods by customers; 15) shipping customers the products chosen by the node calculation; 16) payment for the selected goods; 17) packaging of goods.
The number of operations performed by the personnel of the enterprise to implement the management of trading-technological process depends on such factors:
• business type;
• forms of realization of goods;
• the range of goods sold;
• the degree of readiness of the goods for sale;
• the rhythm and volume of supply;
• packaging of goods and packaging-equipment that is used;
• the level of mechanization of labor-intensive processes;
• the size and layout of trading floors and trading facilities;
• level of professionalism of the sales personnel of the enterprise, etc.
The purpose of management of trade process on a commercial enterprise is to bring products of good quality D0 direct consumers (buyers) with the minimal costs of all resources and gain a profit.
A feature of the trading process in a commercial enterprise is that the subject of labour are not only products, but also consumers (buyers). The staff of the commercial enterprise sells goods and services buyers, and buyers are involved in the implementation of certain operations in the shopping process (purchase).
Regarding the technological process in commercial enterprises it is carried out without the participants (buyers) Here is the relevant personnel of the enterprises of processing trade flows, starting from the incoming goods to the company and to complete their preparation for sale.
Today, depending on the consumer qualities of goods, their degree of readiness for sale, the accepted system of delivery of goods to the enterprise and methods of their implementation, there are three main schemes of trade and technological process.
The most difficult, but one that often applies is the scheme including: 1) the unloading of goods from trucks; 2) acceptance of their quality and quantity; 3) short-term storage; 4) preparation for sale; 5) sale.
The second scheme of trading-technological process includes: 1) unloading of goods from trucks; 2) their acceptance by quantity and quality; 3) storage; 4) sale.
The third scheme involves: 1) the unloading of goods from trucks; 2) acceptance by quantity and quality; 3) sale of goods. It should be borne in mind that in the trade, applying the traditional method of sale (through the seller), the customer service process much more complicated than in the enterprises of self-service. The use of any one scheme of trade and technological process within a single enterprise is found in the domestic enterprises are very rare (only in some small, private and specialized companies). As a rule, the enterprises of retail trade on the implementation of mainly food products, first and foremost, in the universal, simultaneously operate all three schemes.
The main operations in the management of trade process by the retailer are sales of goods and services buyers (familiarization of customers with products and services that are available; assisting customers in choosing products (consultation); calculation with buyers for the sold goods; delivery of goods to the address given by buyer (at the request of the buyer) delivery revenues to the Central cash Desk of the enterprise (the Bank), etc.
All other operations and procedures of trading-technological process at the enterprise trade are complementary, they create the necessary conditions for the successful implementation of the sales process of products and customer service, the level of their performance depends not only on the quality and culture of service but also achieving the common goal of the enterprise activities.
The first technological operation in the retail trade enterprise is the acceptance of goods in quantity and quality. Acceptance starts with the unloading of the vehicles, which use electroresistive means of mechanization.
In modern large-scale retailers of the "Supermarket", "Grocery", "Store" unloading is carried out in covered docks that have multiple discharge locations for the simultaneous acceptance of several cars. Here or in the designated area of the firm is the initial acceptance of goods in quantity and quality by opening the containers and transhipment (allocation) of goods. At the same time and check their quality.
Managing operation of delivery of goods to ensure prompt receipt of commodity weight in the shortest time to the place of sale, guaranteeing their high quality. To accelerate the process of acceptance of goods in trade enterprises contributes to the mechanization and automation of operations, comprehensive computerization of operations on registration of documents, their registration and implementation of calculations for the goods are received by the company.
After acceptance of goods in quantity and quality and the proper documents, depending on their characteristics, methods of disposal used at the facility, perform operations to prepare them for sale (labelling, packaging, palleting, and the like), and moving into places of their sale or storage.
Experience shows that the most difficult and time-consuming operation in the management of trading-technological process, such as universal companies with sales of food products, preparation for sale: packing grains, pasta, flour, sugar, pastry, butter, fats, meat and fish cookery and other goods.
Manufacturing pre-packaged goods can significantly speed up the process of their implementation and promote a culture of customer service.
But, as shown by long experience of packing of goods, even in large retailers such as "Supermarket", the execution of these operations does not bring the desired effect, because they are mostly performed manually, which requires a large labor costs. Equipment of the enterprises and packaging machines allows to use them fully because of the small amount of work. Because the packaging of most food products should be carried out by the industrial enterprises-producers of goods (suppliers). Directly on the retailers, it is advisable to pack only some of the gastronomic products, depending on the peculiarities of their physico - chemical properties, shelf life, frequency of consumption, seasonality, prices and demand for certain products, their weight.