Social groups like this 'atouch link between the individual and society. The behavior of people in groups
Management of the Company
Interest in the phenomena associated with communication, interaction of people, appeared from the time when a person was born self-awareness and the ability to perceive another person as similar to themselves and there is a question: how do I look in the eyes of the other person, what she thinks of me, how to evaluate? Based on the answers to these questions, each person, communicating with others, stick to one or another social group, ie the aggregate of people United by a common territory, profession, social conditions, circumstances. Therefore, the set of groups of different levels form a social environment which, in turn, can be structured on the micro and macro environment.
Thus, the basis of existence of the social environment is a small group of them is and social stratum of society, and the family and employees in General represent a small group. On this basis, the group is a community of people that interact with each other in such a way that each influences the others and is itself influenced by them. Generally, there are the main signs of the following groups:
• the awareness of individuals of their belonging to the group;
• the presence between individuals in certain relationships;
• sformovat internal organization (distribution of responsibilities, osobists effects, statuses, etc.).
• the functioning of the group pressure that compels individuals to conduct in accordance with accepted community standards.
• changes in thoughts and behavior of individuals due to their belonging to a certain community and so forth.
There are formal and informal groups. A formal group is a group that is created by the will of a leader For the organization of the industrial, economic, commercial and other processes. Its function in relation to the organization is the performance of specific tasks and the achievement of certain specific Schlei.
An informal group arises, as a rule, spontaneously, has a well-defined status in society, does not clearly describe the "duties" to other communities. Employees often form a friendly community on the basis of their contacts and common interests. If formal organization is created by a premeditated plan, the informal is more spontaneous response to unmet individual needs.
Informal groups within formal organizations play an important role in her life and the Manager must interact with such structures. This interaction can significantly enhance the effectiveness of formal organizations, as informal organizations often have a direct relationship to the process of group dynamics.
The main characteristics of informal organizations are:
1. The presence of social control. Studies show that the first step in this direction is the establishment of group standards of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. In order to be accepted into the group, the individual must meet these standards which in some cases may not correspond to the value system of the formal organization.
This can lead to a situation where the individual must meet conflicting requirements from the formal and informal groups.
2. The resistance to change. People can use the informal organization to discuss the changes that have happened or are to happen in the organization. In informal organizations there is a tendency to resist change.
3. The existence of informal leaders. If the head of the organization has a formal support in the form of delegated formal authority, informal leader is based on the recognition of his group. Significant factors for group member the opportunity to become a leader of the informal organization are: individual psychological features, age, position, professional competence, location of workplace, freedom of movement around the working area, responsiveness and the like. The exact characteristics due to the adopted by the group value system. The informal leader implements two main functions:
• provides the group its existence;
• helps the group achieve its goals.
To overcome possible conflict between the formal and informal groups, to establish harmony in their relations, the implementation of the informal community of those tasks formal organization may, subject to the following requirements:
• recognizing the existence of informal organization and cooperation with it, no threats as to its existence;
• listening to the views of members and leaders of informal groups, encourage those people, who contributes to the goals of the organization;
• take account of possible negative impact on informal organization in a situation when you need to perform some action;
• involvement of informal representatives of the organization before making decisions to mitigate resistance to change by that organization;
• promptly provide accurate information about a variety of transformations and actions, thereby hindering the spreading of rumors.
The main reasons for joining the group include a sense of belonging, mutual aid, vzaimozachet, close communication and commitment.
1 - Involvement. The first reason for entry into the informal group is to meet needs sense of belonging - one of the strongest emotional needs.
2. Help. In the team there are many variety of rules to be followed, so the new worker wants to learn these rules in informal ways.
3. Protection. People always knew that strength lies in unity. In the lower bands sometimes occurs what is called "cover" each other. Sometimes formed informal groups to protect their colleagues.
4. Communication. On the one hand, the need to communicate with a person that is nice for you, and on the other it involves receiving information through official channels is very slow, but is important for the individual worker and for the prospects of his work. The need for such information contributes to the psychological protection of the person.
5. Close communication and sympathy. People often join informal groups simply in order to be closer to those they sympathize with.
Because group emotions affect both the task and the interaction, they can also influence the effectiveness of the formal organization.