The structure and development of the labor collective
Management of the Company
The labor collective is not just a mechanical unification of people that work together. Personnel are all citizens who participate in its activities on the basis of an employment contract (contract agreement), as well as other forms of governing the employment relationship of employee with the company. He represents the Union on the basis of a complex system of permanent and such that change, develop, economic, technological, institutional, moral, personal relationships between individual employees and their groups. Relationships and interconnections are displayed in the formal and informal structures of the labor collective.
Under the structure of the collective enterprise to understand the creation of a stable structure and subordination of the members of the group, the distribution of management functions among group members, the definition of role structure, which suggests the distribution of roles between group members in the process of collective decision-making.
In the formal collective these processes are governed by the approved organizational documents (organizational chart, staffing table, job descriptions). Informal - all structural changes implemented by the leader in consultation with the group.
The size of the team may vary within wide limits and is associated with a range of controllability, but found that the cohesion decreases with increasing group size. At the same time, groups with a high level of development the problem of group size is removed on the second plan, because of the high socio-psychological potential of such groups that can compensate for practical optimality of their size.
It is believed that a small group begins with a dyad (although it is noted the "truncated" nature of intra-group relations in such communities) or triad. Dyads, or groups consisting of two persons differ by certain characteristics:
1. There's quite fragile;
2. Require strong relationships between partners;
3. The relationship between the partners needs to be streamlined and positive;
4. In such groups creates the conditions for deeper emotional satisfaction.
The triad establishes a more complex relationship than in the dyad. This is because sooner or later, there is a convergence between the two members of the group and the exclusion from it of the third. The third party may play one of the following roles: bezuhanova intermediary (A); the opportunist who uses others for their interests(B); a tactic that follows the principle of "divide and conquer" (In).
In quartets and groups in which there are five or more people can stand out with a pair of closer relations, forming a structure of type "star" when there is a Central party which imposes its will on others, or open type, "chain", where the relationship between people is very indirect.
The Quartet in larger groups less agreement, but also less stress. These differences stem from the fact that for large groups solve organizational problems more necessary. The members of the group are committed to a specific purpose and are therefore forced to direct their efforts to coordinate their actions. In addition, larger groups exert pressure on their members, reinforcing their conformity. In such groups there is inequality between participants: everyone experiences many difficulties in order along with others to participate in discussions and influence decision making
Members of large groups often suffer from low moral unity inherent in the group, high levels of non-participation in group life. Can be weakened when individual members with the entire group, and as a result, the group may be rigid, impersonal forms of control, when the orders received from above, replace personal conversation. In addition, such groups may be faction and strife.
Due to the increase in the size of the group among its members tend to communicate less with each other and often refer to the leader, whose role increases. At the same time, a group of five people, the leader usually refers to the entire group as a whole and not its individual members. Thus the leader becomes the center of communication, it carries out reception and transmission of information.
The labor collective does not arise at the moment of creation of the enterprise, organization or their unit.
Only on the fourth stage of a Mature team and socio-psychological atmosphere, which contributes to the effective work of the team and each of its members.