Teamwork: the essence, stages and levels
Management of the Company
The labor collective represents a specific socio - psychological education and is valid in the system of interpersonal relations, manifested in the form of group activity. Any, even small, the team is a complex entity that has a complex structure. Relations not regulated by any official instructions, regulations and other organizational documents.
Among the signs of the staff it should be noted these:
1. Autonomy is the presence in the workforce of a certain autonomy in the choice of means and activities to address its objectives, which is implemented through the formulation of tasks, granting rights of self-government for their implementation under a single administrative system of the enterprise.
2. Cohesion is an organic relationship of all group members with each other, which is measured by the number of mutual elections.
3. Integrity is the ability of the team to maintain its structure and function, the degree integrationist, which is measured on the basis of siomething research. The higher the degree of cohesion and the degree integrationist labor collectives, the collectives Are DTE. The degree integrationist group is determined by a number 3 next to other psychological factors, namely, physiological compatibility of team members, their common interests and needs, mutually influence proper selection of a leader with the necessary qualities of a leader has authority and respect.
4. The optimal size is the size that allows you to fully carry out its functions with the minimum expenses of work and funds. Optimizing the size of the labor collective may be exercised from different positions: from the point of view of compliance with technology;
terms conditions the most productive use of equipment;
• to ensure the best organizational structure;
• from the standpoint of achieving maximum efficiency of production.
Each team can distinguish the formal (official, administrative) and informal (informal) the structure of the relationship. As a formal structure of relationships understand relations developing on the basis of officially functions. For example, the store has a head, Deputy head, heads of departments, sections or the like. In addition, it is customary to distinguish several levels in the hierarchy of labor collectives: collective enterprise (often called fundamental); the groups of large units, workshops, production areas, offices, complex teams; the groups for the primary production units, teams, sections, departments and the like, which are called primary labor collectives. In accordance with the positions occupied by the workers, and established rules they are subject to each other. The rights of Directors are recorded in various documents: the company's Charter, regulations on subdivisions, job descriptions and so on.
The informal structure of relations - those relations which are officially regulated by no one. They develop between team members based on mutual likes and dislikes. In such groups have their leaders, most active person, that personal qualities prevail over the other members of the group for the knowledge, experience, strength of character, and the like.
Thus, every labor collective in addition to the formal structure (enterprise, site, team) brings together a number of informal socio-psychological formations (microgroups), formed on the basis of various psychological factors, but mainly on the basis of likes - dislikes. Since each team from u-15 people formed several informal groups, each structure has its own orientation, which naturally affects the professional activities of the labor collective: the inconsistency Disrupt collective action, solidarity organizes them.
The team spirit manifested in the force of attraction to it people, in the power of his actions on the individual, what motivates her to stay active in the group and impeding the exit
Socio-psychological group settings are the criteria for distinctive features of development of the group as a collective. Such parameters include:
1. The moral focus of the group is the unity of its goals, motives, values and attitudes.
2. The organizational unity of the group; group self-reliance in the sphere of the activities;
3. Psychological unity of the group is an intellectual, emotional, volitional communication, characterizing the process of interpersonal knowledge and relationships in the group.
With the purpose of definition of factor of organization of the team, you should calculate the index of cohesion. To determine the number of mutual elections (dyads) on the basis of likes-dislikes. Questions are selected based on the nature of the activities of the team, individual psychological characteristics of its members, environment and other factors.
If we denote the index of group cohesion with TGR, the number of mutual positive choices with the assistance, and the total number of possible selections in the team through N, we get
Index of team unity increases with the increase of positive choices. The cohesion of the team is higher the closer the index Zgr to one.
This index characterizes the internal emotional atmosphere of the collective. As a result of repeated psychological studies establish a link between the high index value and effectiveness of professional activities.
Another important characteristic of the group is the index of the integration Jrp, i.e. the group's ability to maintain its structure as a whole. This index is determined by the ratio of a unit to the number of group members that receive no choice:
Low indexes indicate the presence of emotional inter - personal problems, hidden adverse factors in the team, and the task of the leader is: to set the problems in the group, and try to overcome them. These studies give reason to believe that sociometric methods can help to regulate interpersonal processes in the team, and prevent destructive conflicts that may arise.
Under favorable conditions, i.e. when all employees are involved in the solution of collective problems and, more importantly, when the Manager has the authority, the informal structure of the staff combine their efforts to team activities.
Every single person is focused on a certain system of values, that is, each has its own value orientation. The set of individual value orientations is the value-orientation unity of the group (Co). Usually, a person joins an organization with a set of values, a certain attitude to social events and activities as a formed personality that has its own position. The vision of the world, his perception greatly affects the level of motivation in the behavior of the individual and why the individual is seeking to enhance their skills.
Values are common beliefs which determine the goals to which man strives in its activities.
Values are individual enough, but it is possible to define groups of values that affect the behavior of the individual in the collective, namely, theoretical, economic, aesthetic; social; political; religious, and the like. The value system represents the priorities of the individual, which greatly shapes the human behavior in the organization and determines the style of life of the individual.
As mentioned earlier, value-orientation unity of the band is important enough figure that has a significant impact on the cohesion of the team. This figure is not some abstract. It can be quantified for a particular workforce. If the team is formed in the process of joint beneficial Activities, and professional interpersonal relationship with team members will be ordered.
In such circumstances, the people involved in the process of solving the group tasks, all their internal problems relate to the background: in the course of active work, not personal experiences.
To assess the level Zo, using a technique proposed by G. S. Wiseman [13, 84]. The essence of it is that each of the team members of a particular set of qualities of the personality must choose five of these, which are considered most valuable for successful joint activities. Quality included in the questionnaire have a professional staff that is researched. Level Co in % is set by the formula:
If the figure is closer to 100%, it indicates the coincidence of the opinions of a small group on value factors if the index is closer to 0, it indicates the diverse value orientations in the group. Managing interpersonal relations at the level of professional activity of the team involves increased Co. Psychological essence of the actions of the head of the labor collective is to create an environment involving all employees in socially useful activities. Low level Co is a measure of inconsistency of opinion and should attract the attention of managers, because it means that interpersonal communication of the team, there are certain failures. If, despite the efforts which are applied by the Director to intensify the joint activities of employees in solving problems facing the Department, improvement of interpersonal relations does not occur, there is reason to think that the team are developing negative trends in the level of informal groups.